Publications of Marine Observatories and Measurement Techniques group


Kraft K, Velhonoja O, Eerola T, Suikkanen S, Tamminen T, Haraguchi L, Ylöstalo P, Kielosto S, Johansson M, Lensu L, Kälviäinen H, Haario H and Seppälä J, Towards operational phytoplankton recognition with automated high-throughput imaging, near-real-time data processing, and convolutional neural networks. Front. Mar. Sci. 9:867695. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2022.867695, 2022

Passaro M, Rautiainen L, Dettmering D, Restano M, Hart-Davis MG, Schlembach F, Särkkä J, Müller FL, Schwatke C, Benveniste J. Validation of an Empirical Subwaveform Retracking Strategy for SAR Altimetry. Remote Sensing, 14(16):4122., 2022

Polyakov, I, V., Tikka, K., Haapala, J., Alkire, M.B., Alenius, P., Kuosa, H., Depletion of Oxygen in the Bothnian Sea Since the Mid-1950s, Front. Mar. Sci., Sec. Physical Oceanography,, 2022


Grönholm, T., Mäkelä, T., Hatakka, J., Jalkanen, J.-P., Kuula, J., Laurila, T., Laakso, L., Kukkonen, J.: Evaluation of Methane Emissions Originating from LNG Ships Based on the Measurements at a Remote Marine Station,, Environmental Science & Technology, 2021.

Honkanen, M., Müller, J. D., Seppälä, J., Rehder, G., Kielosto, S., Ylöstalo, P., Mäkelä, T, Hatakka, J. and Laakso, L.: The diurnal cycle of pCO2 in the coastal region of the Baltic Sea, Ocean Science, 17, 1657–1675, DOI: 10.5194/os-17-1657-2021, 2021

Kraft, K., Seppälä, J., Hällfors, H., Suikkanen, S., Ylöstalo, P., Anglès, S., Kielosto, S., Kuosa, H., Laakso, L., Honkanen, M., Lehtinen, S., Oja, J., Tamminen, T.: Application of IFCB High-Frequency Imaging-in-Flow Cytometry to Investigate Bloom-Forming Filamentous Cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea,, Frontiers in Marine Science, 2021

Pärt, S., Kankaanpää, H., Björkqvist J.-V., and Uiboupin, R.: Oil Spill Detection Using Fluorometric Sensors: Laboratory Validation and Implementation to a FerryBox and a Moored SmartBuoy, Frontiers in Marine Science, 8, 1753, DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2021.778136, 2021


Björkqvist, J.-V., Rikka, S., Alari, V., Männik, A., Tuomi, L., and Pettersson, H.: Wave height return periods from combined measurement–model data: a Baltic Sea case study, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3593–3609, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-20-3593-2020, 2020

Björkqvist, J.-V., Vähä-Piikkiö, O., Alari, V., Kuznetsova, A., and Tuomi, L.: WAM, SWAN and WAVEWATCH III in the Finnish archipelago – the effect of spectral performance on bulk wave parameters, J. Oper. Oceanogr., 13, 55–70, DOI: 10.1080/1755876X.2019.1633236, 2020


Björkqvist, J.-V., Pettersson, H., and Kahma, K. K.: The wave spectrum in archipelagos, Ocean Sci., 15, 1469–1487, DOI: 10.5194/os-15-1469-2019, 2019

Björkqvist, J.-V., Pettersson, H., Drennan, W. M., and Kahma, K. K.: A new inverse phase speed spectrum of nonlinear gravity wind waves, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 6097– 6119, DOI: 10.1029/2018JC014904, 2019

Nilsson, E., Rutgersson, A., Dingwell, A., Björkqvist, J.-V., Pettersson, H., Axell, L., Nyberg, J., and Strömstedt, E.: Characterization of Wave Energy Potential for the Baltic Sea with Focus on the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone, Energies, 12(5), DOI: 10.3390/en12050793, 2019

Roiha P., PhD Dissertation, Advancements of operational oceanography in the Baltic Sea, Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions 157,, 2019


Björkqvist, J.-V., Lukas, I., Alari, V., van Vledder, G. P., Hulst, S., Pettersson, P., Behrens, A., and Männik, A.,: Comparing a 41-year model hindcast with decades of wave measurements from the Baltic Sea, Ocean Engineering, 152, pp. 57-71, DOI: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.01.048, 2018

Haavisto N, Tuomi L, Roiha P, Siiria SM, Alenius P, Purokoski T.: Argo floats as a novel part of the monitoring the hydrography of the Bothnian Sea. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5:324., 2018

Honkanen, M., Tuovinen, J.-P., Laurila, T., Mäkelä, T., Hatakka, J., Kielosto, S., and Laakso, L.: Measuring turbulent CO2 fluxes with a closed-path gas analyzer in a marine environment, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5335-5350,, 2018

Högström, U., Sahlée, E., Smedman, A.-S. Rutgersson, A., Nilsson, E., Kahma, K., Drennan, W.M.: The Transition from Downward to Upward Air–Sea Momentum Flux in Swell-Dominated Light Wind Conditions, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol 75, pp. 2579-2588,, 2018

Jylhä K, M. Kämäräinen, C. Fortelius, H. Gregow, J. Helander, O. Hyvärinen, M. Johansson, A. Karppinen, A. Korpinen, R. Kouznetsov, E. Kurzeneva, U. Leijala, A. Mäkelä, H. Pellikka, S. Saku, J. Sandberg, M. Sofiev, A. Vajda, A. Venäläinen, and J. Vira: Recent meteorological and marine studies to support nuclear power plant safety in Finland, Energy, 165 (A), 1102-1118,, 2018

Laakso, L., Mikkonen, S., Drebs, A., Karjalainen, A., Pirinen, P., and Alenius, P.: 100 years of atmospheric and marine observations at the Finnish Utö Island in the Baltic Sea, Ocean Sci., 14, 617-632,, 2018.

Roiha P, Siiriä SM, Haavisto N, Alenius P, Westerlund A, Purokoski T. 2018. Estimating currents from Argo trajectories in the Bothnian Sea, Baltic Sea. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5:308. Available from:

Siiriä S, Roiha P, Tuomi L, Purokoski T, Haavisto N, Alenius P. 2018. Applying area-locked, shallow water argo floats in Baltic sea monitoring. Journal of Operational Oceanography. 0(0):1–15. Available from:


Almén, A-K, Glippa O., Pettersson, H., Alenius, P. and Engström-Öst, J.: Changes in wintertime pH and hydrography of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) with focus on depth layers. Environmental Monitoring and Assessement 189:147. DOI 10.1007/s10661-017-5840-7, 2017.

Björkqvist, J.-V., L. Tuomi, C. Fortelius, H. Pettersson, K. Tikka, and K. K. Kahma, Improved estimates of nearshore wave conditions in the Gulf of Finland, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2016.07.005, Journal of Marine Systems 171:43-53, 2017.

Björkqvist, J.-V., Tuomi, L., Tollman, N., Kangas, A., Pettersson, H., Marjamaa, R., Jokinen, H., and Fortelius, C., Brief communication: Characteristic properties of extreme wave events observed in the northern Baltic Proper, Baltic Sea, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, pp. 1653-1658, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-17-1653-2017, 2017

Joensuu, M., Pilditch, C., Harris, R., Hietanen, S., Pettersson, H. and Norkko, A., Sediment properties, biota, and local habitat structure explain variation in the erodibility of coastal sediments, Limnology and Oceanography,, 2017

Laxague, N. J. M., M. Curcic, J.-V. Björkqvist and B. K. Haus: Gravity-Capillary Wave Spectral Response to Short Gravity Wave Modulation, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 55(5), pp. 2477 - 2485, DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2016.2645539, 2017.


Björkqvist, J.-V., Pettersson, H., Laakso, L., Kahma, K. K., Jokinen, H., and Kosloff, P.: Removing low-frequency artefacts from Datawell DWR-G4 wave buoy measurements, Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 17-25, DOI: 10.5194/gi-5-17-2016, 2016.

Johansson M.M. and Kahma K.K., On the statistical relationship between the geostrophic wind and sea level variations in the Baltic Sea. Boreal Env. Res., 21: 25–43, 2016

Kahma, K.K., Donelan, M.A., Drennan, W. M., Terray, E. A. Evidence of energy and momentum flux from swell to wind, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 46(7), pp. 2143-2156, DOI:, 2016

Westerlund A., Tuomi, L. Vertical temperature dynamics in the Northern Baltic Sea based on 3D modelling and data from shallow-water Argo floats. Journal of Marine Systems (2016).,


Högström, U., Sahlée, E., Smedman, A.-S., Rutgersson, A., Nilsson, E., Kahma, K., Drennan, W., Surface Stress over the Ocean in Swell-Dominated Conditions during Moderate Winds, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 72, p. 4777–4795, doi:, 2015.

Hünicke, B., Zorita, E., Soomere, T., Madsen, K.S., Johansson, M., and Suursaar, Ü. Recent Change—Sea Level and Wind Waves, The BACC II Author Team, Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin, Regional Climate Studies, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-16006-1_9., Pages 155-185, 2015.

Selected publications prior to 2014

Beldowski, J., Löffler, A., Schneider, B., Joensuu, L., 2010. Distribution and biogeochemical control of total CO2 and total alkalinity in the Baltic Sea. Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 81, Issue 3, pp. 252-259.

Pettersson, H., Kahma, K. K., Rutgersson, A., Perttilä, M. Air-sea carbon dioxide exchange during upwelling, pp. 420-429 in Komori, S. McGillis, W., and Kurose, R. (Editors): Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces 2010, Kyoto University Press, 2011, ISBN 978-4-87698-560-9

Sahlée, E., Kahma, K. K., Pettersson, H., Drennan, W. M. Damping of humidity fluctuations in a closed-path system, pp. 516-523 in Komori, S. McGillis, W., and Kurose, R. (Editors): Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces 2010, Kyoto University Press, 2011, ISBN 978-4-87698-560-9