Operational Oceanography

Operational oceanography research group focuses on development of operational marine models and marine forecasting systems. Group also participates in development of new automated measurement techniques and processing techniques of remote sensing data.

For research and operational purposes we are using and developing community ocean circulation models NEMO and HBM, wave model WAM, and ice model HELMI. Significant part of the model development is in the modelling of the seasonally ice-covered seas. The work aims to development of coupled wave-ice-ocean model, where the sea ice dynamics, wave-ice interactions and wave-induced turbulence production in the ocean surface layer are taken into account.

Development of new real-time automated measurement techniques for monitoring the physical state of the the Baltic Sea focuses on free-drifting profiling floats, remote sensing and also moored stations.



Haapala. J, Lensu M, Dumont M, Renner A.H, Granskog M.A, Gerland S Small-scale horizontal variability of snow, sea-ice thickness and freeboard in the first-year ice region north of Svalbard
ANNALS OF GLACIOLOGY Vol. 54 p. 261-266. doi: 10.3189/2013AoG62A157

Karvonen J, Heiler I, Haapala J, Lehtiranta J Ice Objects Tracked from Coastal Radar Image Sequences as Virtual Ice Buoys Proc. of The International Conferences on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions (POAC'13) 2013

Lensu M, Elder B.C., Ricter-Menge J, Haapala J Comparison of ice stress records in terms of extreme value analysis Annals of Glaciology, 54(62), doi:10.3189/2013AoG62A194. 2013

Marnela M, Rudels B, Houssais M.-N, Beszczynska-Möller A, Eriksson P Recirculation in the Fram Strait and transports of water in and north of the Fram Strait derived from CTD data Ocean Sci., 9, 499-519, doi:10.5194/os-9-499-2013. 2013

Pärn U, Haapala J Ice deformation in the Gulf of Finland in the severe winter of 2002/2003
Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 62(1), 15-25. 2013

Rudels B, Schauer U, Björk G, Korhonen M, Pisarev S, Rabe B, Wisotzki A Observations of water masses and circulation with focus on the Eurasian basin of the Arctic Ocean from the 1990s to the late 2000s.
Ocean Sci., 9, 147-169, doi:10.5194/os-9-147-2013. 2013


Bartels-Rausch, T., Bergeron, V., Cartwright, J., Escribano, R., Finney, J.,Grothe, H., Gutierrez, P.J., Haapala, J., Kuhs, W.F., Pettersson, J.B.C.,Price, S.D., Sainz-Diaz, I., Stokes, D., Strazzulla, G., Thomson, E.S., Trinks, H., and N. Uras-Aytemiz. 2012. Ice structures, patterns, and processes: A view across the ice-fields. Reviews of Modern Physics, 84, 2, 885-944, 10.1103/RevModPhys.84.885

Mårtenson, S., Meier, H.E.M., Pemberton, P. And J. Haapala, 2012. Ridged sea ice characteristics in the Arctic from a coupled multicategory sea ice model, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C00D15, doi:10.1029/2010JC006936

Rudels, B; Korhonen, M; Budéus, G; Beszczynska-Möller, A; Schauer, U; Nummelin, A; Quadfasel, D & Valdimarsson, H: The East Greenland Current and its impacts on the Nordic Seas: observed trends in the recent decade, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 2012.


Oikkonen, A., and J. Haapala, 2011. Variability and changes of Arctic sea ice draft distribution - submarine sonar measurements revisited. The Cryosphere, 5, 917-929, 2011

Marsan, D., Weiss, J., Metaxian, J.P., Grangeon, J., Roux, P.F. And J. Haapala 2011. Low frequency bursts of horizontally-polarized waves in the Arctic sea-ice cover: a signature of remote, regional-scale icequakes? J. of Glaciology, Vol. 57, 102, 2011

Haas, C., Le Goff, H., Audrain, S., Perovich, D. and J. Haapala, 2011. Local and floe‐scale seasonal thickness changes in the Transpolar Drift. Annals of Glaciology 52 (57):97-102.

Pärn, O. and Haapala, J. 2011. Occurrence of synoptic flaw leads of sea ice in the Gulf of Finland. Boreal Env. Res. 16:71-78


Nicolaus M, Gerland S, Hudson S, Hanson S, Haapala J, Perovich D. 2010. Seasonality of spectral albedo and transmittance as observed in the Arctic Transpolar Drift in 2007 J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2009JC0060742010

Tedesco L, Vichi M, Haapala J, Stipa T. 2010. A dynamic Biologically Active Layer for numerical studies of the sea ice ecosystem Ocean Modelling Vol. 35 p. 89-104

Anderson LG, Tanhua T, Björk G, Hjalmarsson S, Jones EP, Jutterström S, Rudels B, Swift JH, Wåhlström I. 2010. Arctic Ocean shelf - basin interaction, an active continental shelf CO2 pump and its impact on the degree of calcium carbonate dissolution. Deep Sea Res. I, 57, 869-879, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2010.03.012.2010

Björk G, Anderson LG, Jakobsson M, Antony D, Eriksson B, Eriksson P, Janzén T, Jutterström S, Linders J, Löwemark L, Marcussen C, Olsson KA, Rudels B, Sellén E, Sölvsten M. 2010. Flow of Canadian Basin Deep Water in the Western Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean Deep Sea Res. I, 57, 577-586, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2010.01.0062010

Fer, I., Voet G, Seim KS, Rudels B, Latarius K. 2010. Intense mixing of the Faroe Bank Channel Overflow Geophys. Res Letters, 37, L02604, doi:10.1029/2009GL041924.2010

Paka VT, Rudels B, Quadfasel D, Zhurbas VM. 2010. Measurements of turbulence in the Zone of strong bottom current in the Strait of Denmark Doklady Akademii Nauk, 432, 110-114.2010

Rudels B. 2010. Constraints on exchanges in the Arctic Mediterranean ? Do they exist and can they be of use? Tellus, 62A, 109-122.

Roiha P, Westerlund A, Nummelin A, Stipa T. 2010. Ensemble forecasting of harmful algal blooms in the Baltic Sea Journal of Marine Systems Volume 83, Issues 3-4, November 2010, Pages 210-220.

Ryabchenko, V., Dvornikov, A., Haapala, J. and K. Myrberg, 2010. Modelling ice conditions in the easternmost Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea. Continental Shelf Research, 30(13), 1458-1471. doi:10.1016/j.csr.2010.05.006.

Sankelo P, Haapala J, Heiler I, Rinne E. 2010. Melt pond formation and temporal evolution at drifting station Tara during summer 2007 Polar Research, no. doi:10.1111/j.1751-8369.2010.00161.x


Rudels B, Kuzmina N, Schauer U, Stipa T, Zhurbas V. 2009. Double-diffusive convection and interleaving in the Arctic Ocean ? Distribution and importance Geophysica, 45, 199-213.

Tedesco L, Vinci M, Haapala J, Stipa T. 2009. An enhanced sea-ice thermodynamic model applied to the Baltic Sea. Boreal Env. Res. 14: 68-80.

Marnela M, Rudels B, Eriksson P. 2009. Finnish studies of physical Arctic oceanography Geophysica, 45(1-2), 147-162

Leisti H, Riska K, Heiler I, Eriksson P, Haapala J. 2009. A method for observing compression in sea ice fields using IceCam Cold Regions Science and Technology, Volume 59, Issue 1, October 2009, Pages 65-77.

Rudels B. 2009. Arctic Ocean Circulation Encyclopedia of Ocean Science 2nd. Ed, " Eds J. Steele, S. Thorpe and K. Turekian. Academic Press, 3471-3486.2009

Vihma, T. and J. Haapala. 2009. Geophysics of sea ice in the Baltic Sea - a review. Progress in Oceanography, 80, 129-148 , doi: 10.1016/ j.pocean.2009.02.002