Besides the atmosheric phenomena the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has a strong involvement in the Earth and Space Science studies.
Our oldest field of research started in 1844 with measurements of the geomagnetic field. The first decades of these data are known as "The Helsinki extension", as they provide some of the earliest systematic observations of geomagnetic activity. Our auroral camera network started regular operation in 1957, and in the 1980's we began to build instruments for space probes, extending our research to planetary science.
Today a new challenge for the research of solar-terrestrial physics is to support the attempts to predict space weather. Space weather concerns how the dynamic space environment, influenced by conditions on the Sun, can have hazardous effects on technical and biological systems, both in space and on ground. FMI has a crucial role especially in the establishment of European space weather activities.
Space research at our institute is conducted within two Research Programmes: planetary research and numerical modelling in Earth Observation, and ground-based observations and space weather applications in Arctic Research. The geomagnetic recordings are made at the Nurmijärvi Geophysical Observatory.
Modelling of the magnetosphere and other planetary plasma environments is one of the strong points in our expertise. The picture shows a simulation of the Earth's magnetosphere in the Gumics-4 global MHD model.