Two new factors were found to affect refraction of foreshock waves: the velocity and density of backstreaming ions, both with large-scale variability, as well as the large-scale wave propagation in the entire foreshock.
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Palmroth, M., et al. (2015), ULF foreshock under radial IMF: THEMIS observations and global kinetic simulation Vlasiator results compared, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, doi:10.1002/2015JA021526.
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