Research on three branches of activity

High-quality research is utilized to develop services to benefit our everyday life. Visible examples are improvement of weather forecasts, development of new expert and warning services as well as applications of the newest research results.

The meteorological and marine research programme does basic and applied research on meteorology, atmospheric science and physical oceanography. Research subjects include forecast models for different time frames, scientific applications and remote sensing observations linked to the research area as well as the effects of climate change and how to adapt to them.
The climate research programme does basic and applied research on the different components of the climate system. The research subjects are especially past, current and future climate as well as the composition of the atmosphere and its effects on climate change and air quality. Some of the employees of the programme work at the office in Kuopio.
The space and earth observation centre is responsible for the research of the polar regions and near space as well as developing technology related to the activity. The research subjects are especially arctic research and remote sensing, new observation methods and space. The Arctic Space Centre and Sodankylä office are a part of the Space and earth observation centre.

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FMI's researchers publish about 300 peer-reviewed articles annually.

In Science News we publish current information about FMI's studies on the weather, the sea and the climate.

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Sources and composition particulate matter next to an active mining area

Sources and composition particulate matter next to an active mining area

Finnish Meteorological Institute and Centro Mario Molina (Chile) studied the particulate matter composition next to an actively operating open pit mine.

The particles were mainly originating from mining activities and engines of working machines and vehicles operating in mining area. In addition long-range transported sulphate episodes were occasionally observed.

Detailed measurements of particulate matter (PM) were conducted in the boreal arctic environment, next to an actively-operating Kevitsa open pit mine. During the month long campaign three distinct PM sources with different chemical composition were identified: mining activities, long-range transported (LRT) PM and clean arctic air. The main sources of PM originating from the mining area were vehicular emissions for submicron particles (PM1) and mining activities (including re-suspended dust) for supermicron particles (PM1–10). PM1 originating from mining activities had a high contribution of black carbon (44%–48%), organic carbon (31%–46%) and a minor contribution from inorganic ions (< 21%) suggesting that it was mainly originating from the vehicles. Based on elemental composition it is likely that supermicron particles were mechanically generated and re-suspended PM from mining activities. In contrast, for the air mass originating from the arctic areas, PM concentrations were very low and PM had a different chemical composition. During the LRT episode, elevated sulphate concentrations in submicron particles were observed.

This research was funded by TEKES Green Mining program (HIME project) and Academy of Finland (MISU program/PARMAT project 297804).

More information:

Hilkka Timonen,

Timonen H., Teinilä K., Aurela M., Reyes F., Vásquez Y., Bloss M., Oyola P., Hillamo R., Asmi E. & Saarikoski S. 2018: Sources and composition of particulate matter in boreal arctic environment next to an active mining area. Boreal Env. Res. 23: 105–125.

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Contact information

Scientific Director Ari Laaksonen
tel. +358 539 5530

Meteorological and Marine Research Programme
Director Sami Niemelä
tel. +358 29 539 4172

Climate Research Programme
Director  Hannele Korhonen
tel. +358  29 539 2135

Space and Earth Observation Centre
Director Jouni Pulliainen
tel. +358 29 539 4701

FMI publications

FMI´s own publications series are:

  • FMI Contributions: high-quality peer-reviewed research results, mainly doctoral dissertations
  • FMI Reports: current research results mainly for customers and other stakeholders

All publications from 2016 onwards can be found on Helda.