Publications of the Air-Sea Interaction group


Björkqvist, J.-V., Pärt, S., Alari, V., Rikka, S., Lindgren, E., and Tuomi, L., 2021: Swell hindcast statistics for the Baltic Sea, Ocean Science, 17, 1815–1829, DOI: 10.5194/os-17-1815-2021

Pärt, S., Kankaanpää, H., Björkqvist J.-V., and Uiboupin, R., 2021: Oil Spill Detection Using Fluorometric Sensors: Laboratory Validation and Implementation to a FerryBox and a Moored SmartBuoy, Frontiers in Marine Science, 8, 1753, DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2021.778136

Honkanen, M., Müller, J. D., Seppälä, J., Rehder, G., Kielosto, S., Ylöstalo, P., Mäkelä, T, Hatakka, J. and Laakso, L., 2021: The diurnal cycle of pCO2 in the coastal region of the Baltic Sea, Ocean Science, 17, 1657–1675, DOI: 10.5194/os-17-1657-2021

Mahrt, L., Nilsson, E., Rutgersson, A., and Pettersson, H., 2021: Vertical Divergence of the Atmospheric Momentum Flux near the Sea Surface at a Coastal Site, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 51, 11, 3529-3537, DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-21-0081.1

Christakos, K., Björkqvist, J.-V., Breivik, Ø., Tuomi, L., Furevik, B. R., and Albretsen, J., 2021: The impact of surface currents on the wave climate in narrow fjords, Ocean Modelling, 168, 101894, DOI: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2021.101894

Kanarik, H., Tuomi, L., Björkqvist, J.-V., and Kärnä, T., 2021: Improving Baltic Sea wave forecasts using modelled surface currents. Ocean Dynamics, DOI: 10.1007/s10236-021-01455-y

Christakos, K., Björkqvist, J.-V., Tuomi, L., Furevik, B. R., and Breivik, Ø., 2021: Modelling wave growth in narrow fetch geometries: The white-capping and wind input formulations, Ocean Modelling, 157, 101730, DOI: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2020.101730


Björkqvist, J.-V., Rikka, S., Alari, V., Männik, A., Tuomi, L., and Pettersson, H., 2020: Wave height return periods from combined measurement–model data: a Baltic Sea case study, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3593–3609, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-20-3593-2020

Pellikka, H., Laurila, T. K., Boman, H., Karjalainen, A., Björkqvist, J.-V., and Kahma, K. K., 2020: Meteotsunami occurrence in the Gulf of Finland over the past century, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20(9), 2535-2546, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-20-2535-2020 Björkqvist, J.-V., Vähä-Piikkiö, O., Alari, V., Kuznetsova, A., and Tuomi, L., 2020: WAM, SWAN and WAVEWATCH III in the Finnish archipelago – the effect of spectral performance on bulk wave parameters, J. Oper. Oceanogr., 13, 55–70, DOI: 10.1080/1755876X.2019.1633236


Björkqvist, J.-V., Pettersson, H., and Kahma, K. K., 2019: The wave spectrum in archipelagos, Ocean Sci., 15, 1469–1487, DOI: 10.5194/os-15-1469-2019.

Björkqvist, J.-V., Pettersson, H., Drennan, W. M., and Kahma, K. K., 2019: A new inverse phase speed spectrum of nonlinear gravity wind waves, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 6097– 6119, DOI: 10.1029/2018JC014904

Tuomi, L., Kanarik, H., Björkqvist, J.-V., Marjamaa, R., Vainio, J., Hordoir, R., Höglund, A., and Kahma, K. K., 2019: Impact of Ice Data Quality and Treatment on Wave Hindcast Statistics in Seasonally Ice-Covered Seas, Frontiers in Earth Science, 7, 166, DOI: 10.3389/feart.2019.00166

Nilsson, E., Rutgersson, A., Dingwell, A., Björkqvist, J.-V., Pettersson, H., Axell, L., Nyberg, J., and Strömstedt, E.: Characterization of Wave Energy Potential for the Baltic Sea with Focus on the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone, Energies, 12(5), DOI: 10.3390/en12050793, 2019


Björkqvist, J.-V., Lukas, I., Alari, V., van Vledder, G. P., Hulst, S., Pettersson, P., Behrens, A., and Männik, A.,: Comparing a 41-year model hindcast with decades of wave measurements from the Baltic Sea, Ocean Engineering, 152, pp. 57-71, DOI: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.01.048, 2018

Tuomi, L., Vähä-Piikkiö, O., Alenius, P., Björkqvist, J.-V., and Kahma, K. K., 2018: Surface Stokes drift in the Baltic Sea based on modelled wave spectra, Ocean Dynamics, 68(1), pp. 17-33, DOI: 10.1007/s10236-017-1115-7

Honkanen, M., Tuovinen, J.-P., Laurila, T., Mäkelä, T., Hatakka, J., Kielosto, S., and Laakso, L.: Measuring turbulent CO2 fluxes with a closed-path gas analyzer in a marine environment, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5335-5350,, 2018

Högström, U., Sahlée, E., Smedman, A.-S. Rutgersson, A., Nilsson, E., Kahma, K., Drennan, W.M.: The Transition from Downward to Upward Air–Sea Momentum Flux in Swell-Dominated Light Wind Conditions, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol 75, pp. 2579-2588, ,2018

Jylhä K, M. Kämäräinen, C. Fortelius, H. Gregow, J. Helander, O. Hyvärinen, M. Johansson, A. Karppinen, A. Korpinen, R. Kouznetsov, E. Kurzeneva, U. Leijala, A. Mäkelä, H. Pellikka, S. Saku, J. Sandberg, M. Sofiev, A. Vajda, A. Venäläinen, and J. Vira: Recent meteorological and marine studies to support nuclear power plant safety in Finland, Energy, 165 (A), 1102-1118,, 2018

Laakso, L., Mikkonen, S., Drebs, A., Karjalainen, A., Pirinen, P., and Alenius, P.: 100 years of atmospheric and marine observations at the Finnish Utö Island in the Baltic Sea, Ocean Sci., 14, 617-632,, 2018.

Leijala, U., Björkqvist, J.-V., Johansson, M. M., Pellikka, H., Laakso, L., and Kahma, K. K.: Combining probability distributions of sea level variations and wave run-up to evaluate coastal flooding risks, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2785-2799,, 2018.

Pellikka, H., Leijala, U., Johansson, M. M., Leinonen, K., and Kahma, K. K., Future probabilities of coastal floods in Finland, Continental Shelf Research, Vol. 157, p. 32-42, ISSN 0278-4343, , 2018


Almén, A-K, Glippa O., Pettersson, H., Alenius, P. and Engström-Öst, J.: Changes in wintertime pH and hydrography of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) with focus on depth layers. Environmental Monitoring and Assessement 189:147. DOI 10.1007/s10661-017-5840-7, 2017.

Björkqvist, J.-V., L. Tuomi, C. Fortelius, H. Pettersson, K. Tikka, and K. K. Kahma, Improved estimates of nearshore wave conditions in the Gulf of Finland, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2016.07.005, Journal of Marine Systems 171:43-53, 2017.

Björkqvist, J.-V., Tuomi, L., Tollman, N., Kangas, A., Pettersson, H., Marjamaa, R., Jokinen, H., and Fortelius, C., Brief communication: Characteristic properties of extreme wave events observed in the northern Baltic Proper, Baltic Sea, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, pp. 1653-1658, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-17-1653-2017, 2017

Joensuu, M., Pilditch, C., Harris, R., Hietanen, S., Pettersson, H. and Norkko, A., Sediment properties, biota, and local habitat structure explain variation in the erodibility of coastal sediments, Limnology and Oceanography,, 2017

Laxague, N. J. M., M. Curcic, J.-V. Björkqvist and B. K. Haus: Gravity-Capillary Wave Spectral Response to Short Gravity Wave Modulation, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 55(5), pp. 2477 - 2485, DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2016.2645539, 2017.

Särkkä J., Kahma K.K., Kämäräinen M., Johansson M., and Saku S., Simulated extreme sea levels at Helsinki, Boreal Environment Research 22:299-315, 2017


Björkqvist, J.-V., Pettersson, H., Laakso, L., Kahma, K. K., Jokinen, H., and Kosloff, P.: Removing low-frequency artefacts from Datawell DWR-G4 wave buoy measurements, Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 17-25, DOI: 10.5194/gi-5-17-2016, 2016.

Johansson M.M. and Kahma K.K., On the statistical relationship between the geostrophic wind and sea level variations in the Baltic Sea. Boreal Env. Res., 21: 25–43, 2016

Kahma, K.K., Donelan, M.A., Drennan, W. M., Terray, E. A. Evidence of energy and momentum flux from swell to wind, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 46(7), pp. 2143-2156, DOI:, 2016


Högström, U., Sahlée, E., Smedman, A.-S., Rutgersson, A., Nilsson, E., Kahma, K., Drennan, W., Surface Stress over the Ocean in Swell-Dominated Conditions during Moderate Winds, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 72, p. 4777–4795, doi:, 2015.

Hünicke, B., Zorita, E., Soomere, T., Madsen, K.S., Johansson, M., and Suursaar, Ü. Recent Change—Sea Level and Wind Waves, The BACC II Author Team, Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin, Regional Climate Studies, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-16006-1_9., Pages 155-185, 2015.


Garbe, C. S., Rutgersson, A., Boutin, J., De Leeuw, G., Delille, B., Fairall, C. W., Gruber, N., Hare, J., Ho, D. T., Johnson, M. T., Nightingale, P. D., Pettersson, H., Piskozub, J., Sahlée, E., Tsai, W., Ward, B., Woolf, D. K., Zappa, C. J. Transfer Across the Air-Sea Interface, Chapter 2 in Liss, P. S., Johnson, M. T. (Editors): Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions of Gases and Particles, Springer Earth System Sciences, 2014, 315 p. (open access).

Johansson, M. M., Pellikka, H., Kahma, K. K., Ruosteenoja, K., 2014. Global sea level rise scenarios adapted to the Finnish coast. Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 129, pp. 35-46.

Omstedt, A., Humborg, C., Pempkowiak, J., Perttilä,M., Rutgersson, A., Schneider, B., Smith, B., Biogeochemical Control of the Coupled CO2–O2 System of the Baltic Sea: A Review of the Results of Baltic-C, Ambio, 43, Issue 1, pp 49-59, 2014

Pellikka, H., Rauhala, J., Kahma, K.K., Stipa, T., Boman, H., Kangas, A., 2014. Recent observations of meteotsunamis on the Finnish coast. Natural Hazards, DOI 10.1007/s11069-014-1150-3

Tuomi, L., Pettersson, H., Fortelius, C., Tikka, K., Björkqvist, J.-V., Kahma, K. K., 2014. Wave modelling in archipelagos. Coastal Engineering, Vol. 83, pp. 205-220.

Valkonen, T., Vihma, T., Johansson, M.M., Launiainen, J., 2014. Atmosphere - sea ice interaction in early summer in the Antarctic: evaluation and challenges of a regional atmospheric model. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 140, pp. 1536-1551. DOI: 10.1002/qj.2237.

Wolski, T., Wiśniewski, B., Giza, A., Kowalewska-Kalkowska, H., Boman, H., Grabbi-Kaiv, S., Hammarklint, T., Holfort, J., Lydeikaite, Ž., 2014. Extreme sea levels at selected stations on the Baltic Sea coast. Oceanologia 56 (2):259-290


Högström, U., Rutgersson, A., Sahlée, E., Smedman, A.-S., Hristov, T. S., Drennan, W. M., Kahma, K. K., 2013. Air-Sea Interaction Features in the Baltic Sea and at a Pacific Trade-Wind Site - An Inter-comparison Study. Boundary Layer Meteorology, Vol. 147, Issue 1, pp. 139-163.

Vanhatalo, J., Tuomi, L., Inkala, A., Helle, I., Pitkänen, H., 2013. Probabilistic Ecosystem Model for Predicting the Nutrient Concentrations in the Gulf of Finland under Diverse Management Actions. Environmental Science & Technology, 47(1), pp. 334-341.

Hyytiäinen, K., Lehtiniemi, M., Niemi, J. K., Tikka, K., 2013. An Optimization Framework for Addressing Aquatic Invasive Species. Ecological Economics, Vol. 91, pp. 69-79.


Perttilä, M. Marine Carbon Dioxide, pp. 163-170 in Haapala, I. (Editors): From the Earth's Core to Outer Space, Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, Vol. 137, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. 10.1007/978-3-642-25550-2.

Mälkki, P., Perttilä, M. Baltic Sea Water Exchange and Oxygen Balance, pp. 151-161 in Haapala, I. (Editors): From the Earth's Core to Outer Space, Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, Vol. 137, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. 10.1007/978-3-642-25550-2.

Tuomi, L., Myrberg, K., Lehmann, A., 2012. The performance of the parameterisations of vertical turbulence in the 3D modelling of hydrodynamics in the Baltic Sea. Continental Shelf Research, Vol. 50-51, pp. 64-79.

Belcher, S. E., Grant, A. L. M., Hanley, K. E., Fox-Kemper, B., Van Roekel, L., Sullivan, P. P., Large, W. G., Brown, A., Hines, A., Calvert, D., Rutgersson, A., Pettersson, H., Bidlot, J.-R., Janssen, P. A. E. M., Polton, J. A., 2012. A global perspective on Langmuir turbulence in the ocean surface boundary layer. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 39, Issue 18, Editor's choice.

Tuomi, L., Kahma, K. K., Fortelius, C., 2012. Modelling fetch-limited wave growth from an irregular shoreline. Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 105-108, pp. 96-105.

Löffler, A., Schneider, B., Perttilä, M., Rehder, G., 2012. Air-sea CO2 exchange in the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea. Continental Shelf Research, Vol. 37, pp. 46-56.


Pettersson, H., Kahma, K. K., Rutgersson, A., Perttilä, M. Air-sea carbon dioxide exchange during upwelling, pp. 420-429 in Komori, S. McGillis, W., and Kurose, R. (Editors): Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces 2010, Kyoto University Press, 2011, ISBN 978-4-87698-560-9

Tuomi, L., Kahma, K. K., Pettersson, H., 2011. Wave hindcast statistics in the seasonally ice-covered Baltic Sea. Boreal Environment Research, Vol. 16, pp. 451-472.

Sahlée, E., Kahma, K. K., Pettersson, H., Drennan, W. M. Damping of humidity fluctuations in a closed-path system, pp. 516-523 in Komori, S. McGillis, W., and Kurose, R. (Editors): Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces 2010, Kyoto University Press, 2011, ISBN 978-4-87698-560-9


Beldowski, J., Löffler, A., Schneider, B., Joensuu, L., 2010. Distribution and biogeochemical control of total CO2 and total alkalinity in the Baltic Sea. Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 81, Issue 3, pp. 252-259.

Pettersson, H., Kahma, K. K., Tuomi, L., 2010. Wave Directions in a Narrow Bay. Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 40, pp. 155-169.

Leinonen, J., Kahma, K. K., 2010. Estimating Optimal Weights for Combinations of Multiple Forecasts. Geophysica, Vol. 46(1-2), pp. 47-58.



Björkqvist, J.-V., 2020. Waves in Archipelagos, Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions, 159, 137 pp. (PhD thesis, University of Helsinki)


Johansson, M.M., 2014. Sea level changes on the Finnish coast and their relationship to atmospheric factors. Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions, 109, 132 pp. (PhD thesis, University of Helsinki)