Research on three branches of activity

High-quality research is utilized to develop services to benefit our everyday life. Visible examples are improvement of weather forecasts, development of new expert and warning services as well as applications of the newest research results.

The meteorological and marine research programme does basic and applied research on meteorology, atmospheric science and physical oceanography. Research subjects include forecast models for different time frames, scientific applications and remote sensing observations linked to the research area as well as the effects of climate change and how to adapt to them.
The climate research programme does basic and applied research on the different components of the climate system. The research subjects are especially past, current and future climate as well as the composition of the atmosphere and its effects on climate change and air quality. Some of the employees of the programme work at the office in Kuopio.
The space and earth observation centre is responsible for the research of the polar regions and near space as well as developing technology related to the activity. The research subjects are especially arctic research and remote sensing, new observation methods and space. The Arctic Space Centre and Sodankylä office are a part of the Space and earth observation centre.

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FMI's researchers publish about 300 peer-reviewed articles annually.

In Science News we publish current information about FMI's studies on the weather, the sea and the climate.

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New detailed measurements about soot particles in India

New detailed measurements about soot particles in India

Measurements provided completely new and detailed information about the composition of soot particles in Norther India. This information can be used to identify soot particle sources and quantify their transport from source areas.

High soot concentrations are often seen in Northern India and especially in the densely populated Gangetic Plain. This is due to the local emissions and prevailing meteorological conditions which reduce the dilution of pollutions. Soot particles are produced during incomplete burning and the unburnt carbon in these particles is called black carbon.

The new instrument is capable of measuring the fraction of soot particles from all particles and also the composition of soot containing particles. The measurements showed that almost half of the fine particles contain black carbon. These soot particles have two main types. Fresh soot particles have irregular shapes and are almost pure black carbon while aged soot particles are more spherical and have lower black carbon content.

Measurements were conducted at two sites which were made in cooperation with local partners. One site is the representative of densely populated Gangetic Plain and the other is a regional background site at the foothills of the Himalayas. Although soot concentrations were significantly lower at the Himalayan foothill site, structurally similar soot particles were observed at both sites. This indicates that a large fraction of the soot at the background site is originating from the Gangetic Plain.

More information:

Senior scientist Tomi Raatikainen, tel. +358 40 779 1782,

Raatikainen, T., Brus, D., Hooda, R. K., Hyvärinen, A.-P., Asmi, E., Sharma, V. P., Arola, A., and Lihavainen, H.: Size-selected black carbon mass distributions and mixing state in polluted and clean environments of northern India, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 371-383, doi:10.5194/acp-17-371-2017, 2017.


Science news archive

Contact information

Scientific Director Ari Laaksonen
tel. +358 539 5530

Meteorological and Marine Research Programme
Director Sami Niemelä
tel. +358 29 539 4172

Climate Research Programme
Director  Hannele Korhonen
tel. +358  29 539 2135

Space and Earth Observation Centre
Director Jouni Pulliainen
tel. +358 29 539 4701

FMI publications

FMI´s own publications series are:

  • FMI Contributions: high-quality peer-reviewed research results, mainly doctoral dissertations
  • FMI Reports: current research results mainly for customers and other stakeholders

All publications from 2016 onwards can be found on Helda.