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The Finnish Meteorological Institute is a leading expert in meteorology, air quality, climate change, earth observation, marine and arctic research areas.

FMI's researchers publish about 300 peer-reviewed articles annually.

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Estimations about sea ice made in Bohai Sea

Estimations about sea ice made in Bohai Sea

Finnish Meteorological Institute has been doing estimates of two essential sea ice parameters—namely, sea ice concentration (SIC) and sea ice thickness (SIT)—for the Bohai Sea using a combination of a thermodynamic sea ice model and Earth observation (EO) data from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and microwave radiometer.

"We compare the SIC and SIT estimation results with in-situ measurements conducted in the study area and estimates based on independent EO data from near-infrared/optical instruments. These comparisons suggest that the SAR-based discrimination between sea ice and open-water works well, and areas of thinner and thicker ice can be distinguished", says researcher Juha Karvonen. Still, more  comprehensive training dataset is needed to set up an operational algorithm for the estimation of SIC and SIT.

Work was partly supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC1401007, 2016YFC1402704), the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 41428603 and the Academy of Finland under contract No.283101, and the International Science and Technology Cooperation Project of China under contract No. 2011DFA22260. ECMWF is acknowledged for making the weather forecast data available.

More information:

Senior researcher Juha Karvonen, tel. +358 50 3643888,

Juha Karvonen (FMI), Lijian Shi (NSOAS), Bin Cheng (FMI), Markku Similä (FMI), Marko Mäkynen (FMI), Timo Vihma (FMI),Bohai Sea Ice Parameter Estimation Based on Thermodynamic Ice Model and Earth Observation Data, Remote Sensing 2017, 9, 234; doi:10.3390/rs9030234 National Satellite Ocean Application Service (NSOAS), Key Laboratory of Space Ocean Remote Sensing and Application, State Oceanic Administration, Beijing 100045, China

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FMI researchers produce some 300 publications annually, the majority of them in international scientific journals. Research results are also published in FMI´ss own publications series. FMI`s own series are:

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