CV Markku Kangas

Title Senior Research Scientist

Postal address Finnish Meteorological Institute, Meteorological Research, P.O Box 503, 00101 Helsinki

Street address Finnish Meteorological Institute, Meteorological Research, Erik Palmenin aukio 1, 00560 Helsinki

Phone number +358 29 539 1000

Fax +358 29 539 4103

Fields of expertise

  • Numerical weather modelling
  • Road weather modelling
  • Boundary layer measurement utilisation
  • Airborne boundary layer measurements
  • Thermal energy storage
  • Groundwater and aquifer modelling
  • Solar energy utilisation

University and other degrees

  • Doctor of Science (Technology), 1996 Thesis : "Modelling of Transport Processes in Porous Media for Energy Applications". Helsinki University of Technology Dept. of Technical Physics and Mathematics.
  • Licentiate of Science (Technology), 1989 Thesis : "Simulation Model for Heat Storage in Aquifers" (in Finnish). . Helsinki University of Technology Dept. of Technical Physics and Mathematics.
  • Master of Science (Technology), 1984 Thesis : "Computational Simulation of a Solar Pond" (in Finnish). . Helsinki University of Technology Dept. of Technical Physics and Mathematics.
  • Operator qualification certificate for Triga research nuclear reactor, 1981. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Reactor Laboratory.

Previous professional appointments

  • Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Technical Physics 1980-1996 : research scientist, senior teaching assistant, teaching assistant.

List of publications

Peer-reviewed articles

Virve Karsisto, Pertti Nurmi, Markku Kangas, Marjo Hippi, Carl Fortelius, Sami Niemelä, and Heikki Järvinen, Improving road weather model forecasts by adjusting the radiation input. Meteorol. Appl. 23: 503–513, DOI: 10.1002/met.1574, 2016.

Markku Kangas, Laura Rontu, Carl Fortelius, Mika Aurela, and Antti Poikonen, Weather model verification using Sodankylä mast measurements. Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 75–84, 2016, DOI:10.5194/gi-5-75-2016, www.geosci-instrum-method-data-syst.net/5/75/2016/.  

M. Kangas, M. Heikinheimo, and M. Hippi, RoadSurf - a modelling system for predicting road weather and road surface conditions. Meteorological Applications 22(3): 544-553. DOI: 10.1002/met.1486, 2015.

C R Wood, L Järvi, R D Kouznetsov, A Nordbo, S Joffre, A Drebs, T Vihma, A Hirsikko, I Suomi, C Fortelius, Connor, D Moiseev, S Haapanala, J Moilanen, M Kangas, A Karppinen, T Vesala, And J Kukkonen, An overview of the urban boundary layer atmosphere network in Helsinki. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (Impact Factor: 6.03). 11/2013; 94(11). DOI:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00146.2, 2013.

Ari Venäläinen and Markku Kangas, Estimation of winter road maintenance costs using climate data. Meteorol. Appl. 10: 69-73, 2003.

Auli Niemi, Terhi Kling, Markku Kangas, Matti Ettala, Heat Transport in Unsaturated Zone Thermal Energy Storage - Analysis with Two-Phase and Single-Phase Models. Transport in Porous media, Vol.51(1), April 2003, pp.67-88.

M. Kangas, M. Heikinheimo, and V. Laine, Accuracy of NOAA AVHRR-based surface reflectances over winter-time boreal surface - comparison with aircraft measurements and land-cover information. Theoretical and Applied Meteorology, Vol. 70 (2001), pp.231-244.

S.M. Joffre, M. Kangas, M.Heikinheimo, and S.A. Kitaigorodskii, Variability of the Stable and Unstable Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height and its Scales over a Boreal Forest. Boundary Layer Meteorology, Vol. 99, No. 3. June 2001, pp. 429-450.

M. Heikinheimo, M. Kangas, T. Tourula, A. Venäläinen, S. Tattari, Momentum and heat fluxes over lakes Tämnaren and Råksjö based on measurements by the bulk aerodynamic and eddy-correlation methods. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 98-99 (1999), NOPEX Special Issue, pp. 521-534.

Markku Kangas, Modelling of Transport Processes in Porous Media for Energy Applications. Dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Technology, November 22, 1996, Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics. ISBN 952-90-8166-9, Helsinki 1996.

M.T. Kangas, Thermohydraulic Analysis of Ground as a Heat Source for Heat Pumps Using Vertical Pipes. Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Vol.118, pp.300-305, December 1996.

M.T. Kangas and P.D. Lund, Modelling and Simulation of Aquifer Storage Energy Systems. Solar Energy, Vol.53, No.3, 1994.

M.T. Kangas and P.D. Lund, Thermohydraulic Analysis of a Potential Nuclear Waste Repository Site in Bedrock. Waste Management, Vol.10, pp.3-10, 1990.

M.T. Kangas and P.D.Lund, Dynamic Effects in a Salinity-Gradient Solar Pond Heating System. Applied Energy, Vol.20, pp. 189-205, 1985

P.D. Lund and M.T. Kangas, Net Energy Analysis of District Solar Heating with Seasonal Heat Storage. Energy, Vol.8, No.10, pp.813-819, 1983 (also report TKK-F-A485).

Other selected publications and conferences

Markku Kangas, Erik Gregow, Niko Sokka and Carl Fortelius, SRNWP at FMI. 39th EWGLAM and 24th SRNWP Meeting, Reading, United Kingdom, October 2-5, 2017 (poster). Available from http://srnwp.met.hu/.

Markku Kangas and Carl Fortelius, Mast Verification, The joint 27th ALADIN Workshop & HIRLAM All Staff Meeting 2017 and, 3-7 April 2017, Helsinki, Finland (poster). Aladin-Hirlam Newsletter, No.9, September 7, 2017,  http://www.umr-cnrm.fr/aladin/IMG/pdf/nl9.pdf.

Emily Gleeson, Laura Rontu, Velle Toll, Kristian Pagh Nielsen, Jan Mašek, Markku Kangas, Radiation Experiments using the ALADIN-HIRLAM system. Joint 26th ALADIN Workshop & HIRLAM All Staff Meeting 2016, 4-8/04/2016, Lisbon, Portugal, 2016 (poster). Available from http://www.cnrm-game-meteo.fr/aladin/spip.php?article287.

Ekaterina Kurzeneva, Laura Rontu, Margaret Choulga (RSHU), Kalle Eerola, Homa Kheyroallh Pour (UW), Maxime Quenon (ENSG), Markku Kangas, Carl Fortelius, SRNWP at FMI. 38th EWGLAM and 23rd SRNWP Meeting, Rome, Italy, October 3-6, 2016 (poster). Available from http://srnwp.met.hu/Annual_Meetings/2016/download/monday/posters/Finland_poster.pdf.

Carl Fortelius, Karoliina Hämäläinen, Markku Kangas, Ekaterina Kurzeneva, Laura Rontu, Niko Sokka, Highlights of NWP activities at FMI in 2015. ALADIN-HIRLAM Newsletter no.6, January 2016.

Tarja Savunen, Rigel Kivi, Antti Poikonen, Markku Kangas, Kristiina Säntti, Reijo Hyvönen, Ivan Mammarella, Erik Gregow, Bengt Tammelin, CEOP Reference Site – Sodankylä, Finland. Finnish Meteorological Institute, Reports 2014:9, 2015.

Sami Niemelä, Markku Kangas, Kalle Eerola, and Erik Gregow, SRNWP at FMI. 36th EWGLAM and 21th SRNWP Meeting, Offenbach, Germany, September 29 – October 2, 2014. Available from http://srnwp.met.hu/.

Sami Niemelä, Markku Kangas, Kalle Eerola, Evgeny Kadantsev and Carl Fortelius, SRNWP at FMI. 35th EWGLAM and 20th SRNWP Meeting, Antalaya, Turkey, September 30 – October 3, 2013. Available from http://srnwp.met.hu/.

Sami Niemelä, Markku Kangas, Kalle Eerola, Evgeny Kadantsev and Carl Fortelius, SRNWP at FMI. 34th EWGLAM and 19th SRNWP Meeting, Helsinki, Finland, October 8-11, 2013. Available from http://srnwp.met.hu/.

Wood C, Kouznetsov R, Drebs A, Vihma T, Hirsikko A, Suomi I, Fortelius C, O'Connor E, Kangas M, Karppinen A, Joffre S, Kukkonen J, Järvi L., Nordbo A., Moiseev D., Haapanala S., Moilanen J., Vesala T, Overview of Helsinki's Urban Climate Observations Helsinki UrBAN (Urban Boundary-Layer Atmosphere Network). Proceedings 8th International Conference on Urban Climate (ICUC 8) and 10th AMS Symposium on the Urban Environment. (http://www.icuc8.org/abstracts/programme). Dublin, Ireland. 6-10 August 2012.

Markku Kangas, Martti Heikinheimo, Marjo Hippi, Johanna Ruotsalainen, Sigbritt Näsman, Ilkka Juga, Evgeny Atlaskin, Pertti Nurmi : The FMI Road Weather Model. SIRWEC: 16th International Road Weather Conference in Helsinki, 23-25.5.2012. Available from http://www.sirwec2012.fi/.

Markku  Kangas, On-line boundary layer verification of weather models. Joint ASM 2011 and 21th ALADIN Wk, 5-8 April 2011, Norrkoping, Sweden. HIRLAM Nwesletter n. 58, November 2011, 5 pp.

Kalle Eerola, Sami Niemelä, Reima Eresmaa, Niko Sokka, Markku Kangas, and Carl Fortelius, Acceptance test of HIRLAM RCR based on vs. 7.2 at FMI. Hirlam Newsletter No. 55 part B, January 2010, 9 pp. Available from http://hirlam.org.

Markku Kangas, Hirlam on-line mast verification. HIRLAM All Staff Meeting, Brussels, Belgium, 7-10 April 2008. Hirlam Newsletter No. 54, December 2008, 5 pp. Available from http://hirlam.org.

Markku Kangas, Marjo Hippi, Johanna Ruotsalainen, Sigbritt Näsman, Reija Ruuhela, Ari Venäläinen and Martti Heikinheimo, The FMI Road Weather Model. HIRLAM All Staff Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, 2006. Hirlam Newsletter 51, 2006, 8 p. Available from http://hirlam.org.

Evgeny M. Atlaskin, Markku Kangas, Sodankylä data utilization for HIRLAM verification and 1D model studies. HIRLAM All Staff Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, 2006. Hirlam Newsletter 51, 2006, 8p. Available from http://hirlam.org.

Markku Kangas, HIRLAM mast verification plots - data description. HIRLAM All Staff Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, 15-18 May 2006. Hirlam Newsletter No. 51, October 2006, pp.134-136. Available from http://hirlam.org.

Juhani Damski, Marjo Hippi, Hanna Horppila, Satu Innamaa, Markku Kangas, Jussi Kiuru, Markku Lamminluoto, Pertti Nurmi, Pekka Plathan, Lea Saukkonen, Mikko Strahlendorff, Kuljettajien varoituspalvelu. Palvelun sisältö ja tekniset määrittely (Driver Alert for Heavy Traffic. Service definition and technical specifications). AINO-julkaisuja 6/2005, Liikenne- ja viestintäministeriö (Ministry of Transport and Communications Finland), 2005 (in Finnish).

Reija Ruuhela, Johanna Ruotsalainen, Markku Kangas, Carita Aschan, Erkki Rajamäki, Mikko Hirvonen, Tarmo Mannelin, Kelimallin kehittäminen talvijalankulun turvallisuuden parantamiseksi. Loppuraportti (Development of road weather model to pedestrian sidewalk conditions for improved winter-time pedestrian safety. Final report). Ilmatieteen laitos (FMI), raportteja No.2005:1 (in Finnish).

Markku Kangas and Niko Sokka, Operational and RCR HIRLAM at FMI. HIRLAM All Staff Meeting, Dublin, Ireland, 14-16 May 2005. Hirlam Newsletter No. 48, June 2005, 7 pp.

S. Järvenoja, K. Eerola, C. Fortelius, M. Kangas, S. Niemelä and N. Sokka, Validation of RCR for spring and summer 2004. HIRLAM Newsletter, No.46, November 2004, pp.78-100. Available from http://hirlam.org.

Markku Kangas, The operational HIRLAM at FMI. HIRLAM All Staff Meeting, Madrid, Spain, 1-3 March 2004. Hirlam Newsletter No. 45, May 2004, pp.15-22. Available from http://hirlam.org.

Smedman A-S, Andersson A, Batchvarova E, Bumke K, Bösenberg J, Clemens M, Fischer B, Gryning S-V, Hennemuth B, Hyvönen R, Högström U, Jacob D, Johansson C, Kangas M, Melas D, Michelson D.B, Omstedt A, Peltomaa A, Peters D, Rutgersson A, Säntti K, Tammelin B: PEP in Baltex, Final report,
pp. 2-42 (tilaaja: European Commision), 2001.

Tammelin B, Hyvönen R, Kangas M, Peltomaa A, Säntti K : Pilot study of evaporation and precipitation over the Baltic Sea (PEP). Final Report, p. 2-49, 2000.

Markku Kangas, Sodankylä mast data for model comparison studies. Proceedings of Baltic HIRLAM Workshop, St.Petersburg, 17-20 November, 2003, pp. 35-38.

Martti Heikinheimo, Markku Kangas, Ari Venäläinen, Timo Pirttijärvi, Harri Koivusalo, Characteristics of the snow pack and lower atmosphere during CFE3 in Sodankylä. Final Report for WINTEX (Ed. Sven Halldin), NOPEX Technical Report No. 29, April 1999, pp. 40-42.

Martti Heikinheimo, Ari Venäläinen, Timo Pirttijärvi, Markku Kivioja, Markku Kangas, Continuous Climate Monitoring (CCM) at the northern NOPEX site in Sodankylä. Final Report for WINTEX (Ed. Sven Halldin), NOPEX Technical Report No. 29, April 1999, pp. 43-44.

Markku Kangas, Dave Kindred, Martti Heikinheimo, STAAARTE airborne measurements - northern NOPEX region. Final Report for WINTEX (Ed. Sven Halldin), NOPEX Technical Report No. 29, April 1999, pp. 61-63.

Martti Heikinheimo, Markku Kangas, Ari Venäläinen,Timo Pirttijärvi, Harri Koivusalo, Characteristics of the snow pack and lower atmosphere during CFE3 in Sodankylä. First Annual Report for WINTEX. NOPEX Technical Report No. 28, February 1998, pp. 29-30.

Martti Heikinheimo, Ari Venäläinen, Timo Pirttijärvi, Markku Kangas, Continuous Climate Monitoring (CCM) at the northern NOPEX site in Sodankylä. First Annual Report for WINTEX (Ed. Sven Halldin), NOPEX Technical Report No. 28, February 1998, pp. 31-32.

Markku Kangas, Dave Kindred, Martti Heikinheimo, STAAARTE airborne measurements - northern NOPEX region. First Annual Report for WINTEX (Ed. Sven Halldin), NOPEX Technical Report No. 28, April 1999, pp. 47-48.

Markku Kangas : Wintex airborne measurements in Sodankylä, Finland. Submitted to EU as a final report of the EU/STAAARTE training, 1997.

M.T.Kangas, The effect of of temperature gradients in the ground on groundwater flow patterns. Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Technical Physics, Report TKK-F-A750, 1996.

M.T. Kangas and P.D. Lund, THETA - An advanced simulation program for 3D fluid, heat and solute transfer in porous media. Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Technical Physics, Report TKK-F-A732, 55+125 p., 1994.

A.Eerikäinen, M.Ettala, M.Kangas, T.Kling, P.Lund, A.Niemi and K.Winqvist, Energy Storage in Unsaturated Soil Using Pore Air Flow. VTT Research Notes 1389, Espoo, 1992.

M. T. Kangas and P. D. Lund, MicroTHETA Simulation Program for 3D Fluid and Heat Flow in Porous Media. Helsinki University of Technology, report TKK F A659, 1989.

Markku Kangas and Seppo Peltola, Comparison of MINSUN? AST and THETA Aquifer Simulation Models. Helsinki University of Technology, report TKK F C105, 1989.

Markku Kangas, Peter Lund ja Petra Lundström, Jätteiden lämmöntuoton vaikutus pohjaveden virtaukseen ydinjätteiden loppusijoitustilan ympäristössä (The effect of heat production on groundwater flow in the vicinity of a nuclear waste repository). VTT-YDI, työraportti TOKA-6/89, 1989 (working report, in Finnish).

M.T. Kangas and P.D.Lund, Thermal Analyses of Aquifer Energy Storage Systems. Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Technical Physics, Report TKK-F-A623, 1988.

Markku Kangas, Pohjavesilämpövaraston simulointimallin kehittäminen (Simulation model for aquifer thermal energy storage). Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Technical Physics, report TKK-F-B103, 1987 (in Finnish).

Markku Kangas, Peter Lund, Timo Laitinen, Kolmiulotteinen lämmön siirtyminen pohjavesiesiintymässä. Simulointimalli. Loppuraportti.(Three-dimensional heat transfer n aquifers. A simulation model. Final report). Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Technical Physics, report TKK-F-A596, 1986 (in Finnish).

Markku Kangas, Aurinkolammikon laskennallinen simulointi (Computational Simulation of a Solar Pond). Diplomityö, Teknillinen korkeakoulu, teknillisen fysiikan osasto (Master of Science Thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Technical Physics), 1984, 74 pp.

Carl Fortelius, Niko Sokka, Kalle Eerola, Markku Kangas, Sami Niemelä : Operational NWP Activities at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Tthe 28th EWGLAM and 13th SRNWP Meetings, 9-12 October 2006, Zurich, Switzerland, 4 pp, 2006.

Niko Sokka, Kalle Eerola, Simo Järvenoja and Markku Kangas, Operational NWP Activities a t the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Extended abstract for the 27th EWGLAM Meeting, 3 rd - 5th October 2005, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 5 pp.

Ruuhela, R., Ruotsalainen, J., Aschan, C., Torkki, M. and Kangas, M., 2005, Preventing Pedestrian Slipping Accidents with Help of Weather Service. 17th International Congress of Biometeorology, ICB 2005. Annalen der Meteorologie, 41, Vol 1: 330-332, 3 pp.

Johanna Ruotsalainen, Reija Ruuhela and Markku Kangas, Preventing Pedestrian Slipping Accidents with Help of a Weather and Pavement Condition Model. Walk 21, The Fifth International Conference on Walking in the 21st Century, Copenhagen, Denmark, 9-11 June, 2004, 12 pp.

Joffre S.M. & M. Kangas, Simple diagnostic expressions for the stable and unstable atmospheric boundary layer height. Air Pollution 2001, Modelling, Monitoring and mangement of Air pollution, Ancona (I), 12-14 Sept. 2001. 7 pp.

Markku Kangas, Martti Heikinheimo ja Ari Venäläinen, Tiesäämalli - tienpinnan lämpötilan, kelin ja liikenneolosuhteiden ennustamiseen. (Road weather model - a model for forecasting road surface temperature and condition and traffic conditions). Kunnosta on kysymys - seminaari teiden ja katujen ylläpidosta. Suomen Tieyhdistys, Tampere, 30-31.5.2001, 6 p.

Joffre S. & M. Kangas, Determination and scaling of the atmospheric boundary layer height under various stability conditions over a rough surface, COST 715 Workshop, Zurich (CH), May 24, 2001, 8pp.

Martti Heikinheimo, Markku Kangas, Ari Venäläinen : tests with a new road temperature model for selected winter weather conditions in Finland. The 22nd Nordic Meteorologists' Meeting, Mariehamn, Finland, June 27-July 1, 2000, 4 p.

Joffre, S.M., Kangas, M., Heikinheimo and Kitaigorodskii, S.A : Observed scales for the atmospheric boundary layer height. XXV European Geophysical Society General Assembly, Nice (F), 25-29 April 2000. Geophys. Res. Abstracts, Vol. 2, Atmospheric Sciences, p.182.

M. Kangas, V. Laine and M. Heikinheimo : Use of C-130 airborne measurements in the verification of satellite albedo measurements in the northern NOPEX/WINTEX area. European Geophysical Society, the XXIII General Assembly, Nice, France, 20-24 April 1998. In : Annales Geophysicae, Supplement IV to Volume 16, p. C1157.

M.Heikinheimo, H. Koivusalo, and M. Kangas, Energy fluxes above a snow covered surface during WINTEX-CFE3 in Sodankylä. In:RASCHKE, E. and ISEMER, H.-J. (eds.) Second Study conference on BALTEX, May, 25-29, 1998, Juliusruh, Island of Rügen, Germany, p. 73-74.

M. Heikinheimo, M. Kangas, A. Venäläinen : Energy budget of two contrasting lakes in NOPEX. 21th General Assembly of the European Geophysical Society. Ann. Geophys., Book of Abstracts, Suppl. II, Vol. 15, p. C294, 1997.

M.T. Kangas and P.D. Lund, Validation of simulation model THETA for thermohydraulic and environmental analysis of aquifers using the Rajamäki long-term experiments. Proc. of CALORSTOCK '94, 6th International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage, August 22-25, 1994, Espoo, Finland, 10p.

M.T. Kangas and P.D. Lund, MicroTheta - a PC-based tool for aquifer thermal energy storage systems including environmental impact analysis. Proc. of CALORSTOCK '94, 6th International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage, August 22-25, 1994, Espoo, Finland, 10p.

M.T. Kangas and P.D. Lund (editors), CALORSTOCK '94. Proceedings of CALORSTOCK '94, 6th International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage, August 22-25, 1994, Espoo, Finland (2 volumes).

M.T. Kangas and P.D. Lund, Microcomputer Design Tool for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage with Extension to Environmental Analysis. Proceedings of THERMASTOCK '91, the 5th International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage, Scheveningen, the Netherlands, May 13-16, 1991 pp. 3.3-1 - 3.3-6.

M.T. Kangas and P.D.Lund, Aquifers as an Integral Part of an Energy System. Proceedings of JIGASTOCK 88, the IV International Conference on Energy Storage for Building Heating and Cooling, Vol. 2, October 18-21, 1988, Versailles, France, pp. 783-786.

M. Dytczak, P.N. Hansen, F. Hooper, M. Kangas, B. Matthey, and P. Iris, Report from the committee on Seasonal Efficiency Calculations and Economics. Proceedings of JIGASTOCK 88, the the IV International Conference on Energy Storage for Building Heating and Cooling, Vol. 2, October 18-21, 1988, Versailles, France, p. 769.

M.T. Kangas and P.D.Lund, A Multipurpose 3-D Computer Simulation Model for ATES Applications. Advances in Solar Energy Technology, Vol.2, Proceedings of the Biennial Congress of the International Solar Energy Society, September 13-18, 1987, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany.

M.T. Kangas and P.D.Lund, 3-D Computer Simulation of Coupled Heat and Fluid Flow in Porous Media. Proceedings of the Third Danish - Polish Workshop on Modelling Heat Flow and Fluid Flow Problems, Warsaw, August 1987.

M.T. Kangas and P.D.Lund, in The Simulation of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems. Nordic Workshop on Computational Methods of Seasonal Storage Solar Heating Systems. NBS-Workshop, June 12-13,1987 (Ed. P. Lund). Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Technical Physics, Report TKK-F-A612, 1987.

M.T. Kangas, P.D. Lund and T. Laitinen, Comparison of Long-Term ATES Experiments to 3-D Computer Simulations. Proceedings of ENERSTOCK, the III International Conference on Energy Storage for Building Heating and Cooling, September 22-26, 1985, Toronto, Canada.

M.T. Kangas and P.D. Lund, Thermohydrodynamic Performance Simulations of Solar Ponds for Northern Latitudes. International Conference on Solar Energy at High Latitudes, September 4-6, 1984, Napier College, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Markku Kangas ja Peter Lund, THETA - tietokoneohjelmisto kytketyn virtauksen, lämmön- ja aineensiirron simulointiin huokoisessa väliaineessa (THETA - a computer simulation model for fluid, heat and solute transfer in porous media). Pohjavesimallinnuksen seminaari (Seminar on groundwater modelling), May 9,1991, Espoo. VTT Symposium 126. 7p (in Finnish).

Markku Kangas, Peter D. Lund, Microcomputer Design Tool for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage. Finnish Advanced Energy & Systems R&D Programme Review 1990 (ed. P.D. Lund), pp.47-48. NEMO report 15, Espoo 1990.

Markku Kangas and Peter Lund, Microcomputer Simulation of Thermohydraulic Flow in Porous Media.
Proceedings of the Second National Advanced Energy Systems Seminar, August 24, 1989, Sjökulla, Kirkkonummi. NEMO report 12.

Markku Kangas ja Peter Lund, Kallion lämpötilaerojen vaikutus pohjaveden virtaukseen (The effect of temperature gradients on groundwater flow in rock). VTT-YDI, työraportti TUMA-15/88, 1988 (working report, in Finnish).

Markku Kangas ja Peter Lund, Kytketyn pohjaveden virtauksen ja lämmönsiirron ratkaiseminen elementtimenetelmällä (The solution of coupled groundwater flow and heat transfer using the finite element method) . VTT-YDI, työraportti TUMA-17/87, 1987 (working report, in Finnish).

Markku Kangas, Lämmön siirtyminen ja lämpöhäviöt varastoinnissa (Heat transfer and heat losses in a heat storage). Lämpövarastot, kurssi 3-4.2.1986 (Heat storage, a course by Enegineers' Training Center - INSKO), INSKO, julkaisu 175-85 (in Finnish).

M.T. Kangas, P.D.Lund and T. Laitinen, Computer Simulation of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage. Proceedings of the XX Annual Conference of the Finnish Physical Society, February 6-8, 1986, Tampere, Finland (abstract)

S.S. Peltola, M.T. Kangas, P.D. Lund, Säätietojen tarve aurinkoenergiatutkimuksessa (The need for weather data in solar energy research). Kansallinen ilmastokokous (National meeting on climate), 28-30.8.1985, Espoo. Suomen Akatemian julkaisuja (Publications of the Finnish Academy) 7/1985 (abstract, in Finnish).

M.T. Kangas, S.S. Peltola, P.D. Lund, Säteilytiedot ja niiden simulointi aurinkoenergiatutkimuksessa (Radiation data and its use in solar energy research). Kansallinen ilmastokokous (National meeting on climate), 28-30.8.1985, Espoo. Suomen Akatemian julkaisuja (Publications of the Finnish Academy) 7/1985 (abstract, in Finnish).

M.T. Kangas, P.D. Lund and T. Laitinen, Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers. Abstacts of the Second Conference on Basic Energy Research in Finland, November 13-14, 1984, Lammi, Finland (abstract).

M.T. Kangas, P.D. Lund, S.S. Peltola, J.T. Routti, and M.B. Östman, Seasonal Storage of Solar Energy. Proceedings of the XVII Annual Conference of the Finnish Physical Society, February 11-12, 1983, Joensuu, Finland (abstract).

J. Forsström, M.Kangas, P. Lund, S. Peltola, J. Routti, M. Suvanen, and B. Östman, Solar Energy Studies at the Helsinki University of Technology. Abstracts of the First Conference on Basic Energy Research in Finland, November 8-9, 1982, Espoo, Finland (abstract).

(Last publications update in October 2017)