The main objective of the project is to quantify the interaction of Arctic snow albedo and absorbing aerosols (Black Carbon, BC), and to gain more in-depth understanding of the globally important aspects of BC and albedo feedback, as well as BC and snow melt in the Arctic.
Funding: Academy of Finland (decision No. 254195)
Start year: 2012
End year: 2015
Coordinating: Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI)
Contact: Prof. Gerrit de Leeuw (Gerrit.Leeuw@fmi.fi), and Outi Meinander (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Partners and co-operation: The project is within the Nordic Top-level Research Initiative (TRI) "Cryosphere-atmosphere interactions in a changing Arctic climate" (CRAICC) with ACP CRAICC –Special Issue.
Black carbon (BC) is formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, forest fires, industrial processes, diesel vehicles, and other sources of incomplete combustion emitting soot particles to the atmosphere. The effect of BC in snow layers is of importance to climate change and also for forcasting snow melt.
Snow reflectivity, i.e. albedo, varies with wavelength, and therefore the strength of the feedback depends on a number of factors, such as the depth and age of the snow cover, snow grain size, solar zenith angle, and cloud cover. According to IPCC, the level of scientific understanding on the effect of BC on surface albedo (black carbon aerosol on snow) is low, the consensus insufficient, and the evidence for radiative forcing estimates not strong.
Uncertainties are identified there to be especially related to: separation of anthropogenic from natural, mixing of snow and aerosols, and quantification of radiative forcing. Especially the effect of black carbon on snow albedo and melting is improperly understood. Our work aims to reduce these uncertainties.
The whole list of A4 publications, presentations and press releases: http://en.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/a4-publications. The most recent is:
Meinander et al. 2013, ACP, http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/3793/2013/acp-13-3793-2013.pdf Citation: Meinander, O., Kazadzis, S., Arola, A., Riihelä, A., Räisänen, P., Kivi, R., Kontu, A., Kouznetsov, R., Sofiev, M., Svensson, J., Suokanerva, H., Aaltonen, V., Manninen, T., Roujean, J.-L., and Hautecoeur, O.: Spectral albedo of seasonal snow during intensive melt period at Sodankylä, beyond the Arctic Circle, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3793-3810, doi:10.5194/acp-13-3793-2013, 2013.
Last updated: 5 March.2014 by Outi Meinander
WP1. BLACK CARBON IN CONNECTION WITH SNOW ALBEDO
WP1.1 Transport of soot (Mikhail Sofiev, Roux Kouznetsov)
WP1.2 Airborne aerosols, deposition, snow BC analyses and albedo (Heikki Lihavainen)
WP2. SNOW ALBEDO IN CONNECTION WITH BLACK CARBON
WP2.1 Continuous albedo data and ancillary data (Outi Meinander; Henna-Reetta Hannula)
WP2.2 Three experiments on albedo and BC in the snow (Aki Virkkula SoS-experiment, Outi Meinander BC and albedo, Petri Räisänen Modelling)
WP3. THE VERIFICATION AND USE OF BC AND ALBEDO RESULTS FOR MODELING AND SATELLITE APPROACHES
WP3.1 Parameterization of snow albedo in climate models and sensitivity tests (Petri Räisänen)
WP3.2 Using the snow albedo measurements and modeling in satellite retrievals of aerosol properties during snow melt period (Gerrit de Leeuw)
tel. +358 29 539 1000
Postal address Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O.Box 503, FI-00101 HELSINKI
Street address Erik Palménin aukio 1, FI-00560 HELSINKI
A4-project's in situ BC and snow albedo measurement places: