Currently operational sites

Kaamanen

Kaamanen is a mesotrophic flark fen in northern Finland.

Kaamanen
 Photo: Kauko Pistemaa
 
Basic information
 Station name  Kaamanen
 Coordinates  N69°8.435', E27°16.189
 Altitude (masl)  155
 Ecosystem type  Fen
 Networks  

  

Observations
 Parameter  Instrument  Measurement height (m) Period Coordinates
(if specific)
 CO2-flux (EC)  LI7000 + USA-1  5  04/1997→  x
 CH4-flux (EC)  LGR  5  07/2010→  x
Supporting observations Air temperature + humidity, soil temperature, soil heat flux, soil moisture, water level height, PPFD, global radiation, albedo, net radiation

  

Climatology and vegetation
 Climate data point LPNN 9601 (1981-2010)
 Average temperature (°C)  -0.4
 Annual precipitation (mm)  472
 Average snow depth at mid-March (cm)  61
 Median snow cover start date  Oct 29
 Median snow cover end date  May 10
 Environment  
 Vegetation type  Sedges, shrubs and mosses
 Mean vegetation height (m)  0.3
 Max projected LAI  0.7
 Soil type  Peat
 Stand volume (m3 ha-1)  x
 Tree density (ha-1)  x
 Tree age (years)  x

 

References

Aurela M., Laurila T. and Tuovinen J.-P. (2002) Annual CO2 balance of a subarctic fen in northern Europe:
Importance of the wintertime efflux, Journal of Geophysical Research, 107(D21), 4607,
doi:10.1029/2002JD002055.

Aurela M., Laurila T. and Tuovinen J.-P. (2004) The timing of snow melt controls the annual CO2 balance
in a subarctic fen. Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L16119, doi:10.1029/2004GL020315.

Maanavilja L., Riutta T., Aurela M., Pulkkinen M., Laurila T., and Tuittila E.-S. 2010. Spatial variation in CO2
exchange at a northern aapa mire. Biogeochemistry, 104 (1–3), 325–345. doi:10.1007/s10533-010-9505-7.

 

Pallas (GAW)

Measurements at Pallas Atmosphere-Ecosystem Supersite include four different GHG measurement
locations, Kenttärova, Lompolojänkkä, Pallaslompolonniemi and Sammaltunturi, described below.
Kenttärova and Lompolojänkkä are part of the same 42-ha catchment, and the surface water move
nutrients within the catchment from Kenttärova to Lompolojänkkä and finally into the Lake Pallasjärvi
(close to the flux measurement station Pallaslompolonniemi). Pallas is a northern node of Pallas-Sodankylä
GAW station of Finnish Meteorological Institute, the other node being located in Sodankylä Arctic Research Centre.

Kenttärova

The supporting ecosystem site Kenttärova is situated near to the northern border of the boreal
vegetation zone on a hill that is circa 60 m above surrounding planes.

Kenttärova
 Photo: Tuomas Laurila
 
Basic information
 Station name  Kenttärova
 Coordinates  N67° 59.237', E24°14.579'
 Altitude (masl)  347
 Ecosystem type  Spruce forest
 Networks

 ICOS associate ecosystem station,

 CryoNet station of GCW

 

Currently ongoing observations
 Parameter  Instrument  Measurement height (m) Period Coordinates
(if specific)
 CO2-flux (EC)  LI7000 + USA-1  23 01/2003 →  x
 CO2 and CH4 flux (manual chamber)  Picarro G2301  Forest floor 07/2016 →  x
 CO2- and CH4 - concentration  Picarro G2301  2, 10, 20  06/2012 →  x
Supporting observations Air temperature + humidity, soil temperature, soil heat flux, soil moisture, PPFD, global radiation, albedo, net radiation, LW radiation, precipitation, snow depth
 

 

Climatology and vegetation 
 Climate data point  LPNN 8201 (1981-2010)
 Average temperature (°C)   -1.4
 Annual precipitation (mm)   484
 Average snow depth at mid-March (cm)  72
 Median snow cover start date  Oct 24
 Median snow cover end date  May 14
 Environment (in 2002)  
 Vegetation type  Norway spruce forest
 Mean vegetation height   13 m
 Max projected LAI   2.2
 Soil type  Podzol
 Stand volume (m3 ha-1)  -
 Tree density (ha-1)  1050
 Tree age (years)  70-160

  

References

Aurela M., Lohila A., Tuovinen J-P., Hatakka J., Penttilä T., Laurila T. (2015) Carbon dioxide and energy flux
measurements in four northern-boreal ecosystems at Pallas. Boreal Environment Research, 20, 455-473.

Hatakka J., Aalto T., Aaltonen V., Aurela M., Hakola H., Komppula M., Laurila T., Lihavainen H., Paatero J.,
Salminen K. and Viisanen Y. (2003). Overview of the atmospheric research activities and results at Pallas GAW
station. Boreal Environment Research, 8(4), 365-383.

Lohila A., Penttilä T., Jortikka S., Aalto T., Anttila P., Asmi E., Aurela M., Hatakka J., Hellen H., Henttonen H.,
Hänninen P., Kilkki J., Kyllönen K., Laurila T., Lepistö A., Lihavainen H., Makkonen U., Paatero J., Rask M.,
Sutinen R., Tuovinen J-P., Vuorenmaa J., Viisanen Y. (2015) Preface to the special issue on integrated
research of atmosphere, ecosystems and environment at Pallas. Boreal Environment Research, 20, 431-454.

 

Lompolojänkkä

The supporting ecosystem site Lompolojänkkä is an open, nutrient-rich sedge fen located in
north-western Finland.

Lompolojänkkä
 Photo: Tuomas Laurila
 
Basic information
 Station name  Lompolojänkkä
 Coordinates  N67°59.835', E24°12.546'
 Altitude (masl)  269
 Ecosystem type  Open, nutrient-rich sedge fen
 Networks  ICOS Class II ecosystem site

 

Observations
 Parameter  Instrument  Measurement height (m) Period Coordinates
(if specific)
CO2-concentration  LI6262  3  03/2005 →  x
CH4-concentration  GC  3  03/2005 -11/2011  x
 CO2-flux (EC)  LI7200 + USA-1  3 03/2005 →  x
 CH4-flux (EC)  LGR  3  08/2006 →  x
 CH4-flux (EC)  FID  3  03/2005 -08/2006  x
 CH4 + N2O -flux (manual chamber)  GC   Ground  08/2004 →  x
 CH4 + CO2 -flux (manual chamber)  LGR  Ground  06/2016 →  x
CH4-flux (automatic chamber)  GC, LGR  Ground  2007 →  x
Supporting observations Air temperature + humidity, soil temperature, soil heat flux, soil moisture, water level height, PPFD, global radiation, albedo, net radiation

 

Climatology and vegetation
 Climate data point  LPNN 8201 (1981-2010)
 Average temperature (°C)  -1.4
 Annual precipitation (mm)  484
 Average snow depth at mid-March (cm)  72
 Median snow cover start date  Oct 24
 Median snow cover end date  May 14
 Environment  
 Vegetation type  Shrubs, sphagnum mosses
 Mean vegetation height (m)  0.4
 Max projected LAI  1.3
 Soil type  Peat
 Stand volume (m3 ha-1)  x
 Tree density (ha-1)  x
 Tree age (years)  x

 

References

Aurela M., Lohila A., Tuovinen J.-P., Hatakka J., Riutta T., and Laurila T. (2009) Carbon dioxide exchange
on a northern boreal fen. Boreal Environment Research 14, 699–710.

Aurela M., Lohila A., Tuovinen J-P., Hatakka J., Penttilä T., Laurila T. (2015) Carbon dioxide and energy
flux measurements in four northern-boreal ecosystems at Pallas. Boreal Environment Research, 20, 455-473.

Drewer J., Lohila A., Aurela M., Laurila T., Minkkinen K., Penttilä T., Dinsmore K.J., McKenzie R., Helfter C.,
Flechard C., Sutton M.A., and Skiba U.M. (2010) Comparison of greenhouse gas fluxes and nitrogen budgets
from an ombrotrophic bog in Scotland and a minerotrophic sedge fen in Finland. European Journal of Soil Science,
61, 640–650. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2389.2010.01267.x.

Lohila A., Aurela M., Hatakka J., Pihlatie M., Minkkinen K., Penttilä T., and Laurila T. (2010) Responses of N2O
fluxes to temperature, water table and N deposition in a northern boreal fen. European Journal of Soil Science,
61, 651–661, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2389.2010.01265.x.

Lohila A., Penttilä T., Jortikka S., Aalto T., Anttila P., Asmi E., Aurela M., Hatakka J., Hellen H., Henttonen H.,
Hänninen P., Kilkki J., Kyllönen K., Laurila T., Lepistö A., Lihavainen H., Makkonen U., Paatero J., Rask M.,
Sutinen R., Tuovinen J-P., Vuorenmaa J., Viisanen Y. (2015) Preface to the special issue on integrated research
of atmosphere, ecosystems and environment at Pallas. Boreal Environment Research, 20, 431-454.

Mathijssen P., Tuovinen J.-P., Lohila A., Aurela M., Juutinen S., Laurila T., Niemelä E., Tuittila E.-S., and
Väliranta M. (2014) Development, carbon accumulation, and radiative forcing of a subarctic fen over the Holocene.
The Holocene, 24, 1021-1027, DOI: 10.1177/095968361453807.

Metzger C., Jansson P.-E., Lohila A., Aurela M., Eickenscheidt T., Belelli-Marchesini L., Dinsmore K., Drewer J.,
van Huissteden J. and Drösler M. (2015) CO2 flux and ecosystem dynamics at five European treeless peatlands
– Merging data and process oriented modelling. Biogeosciences, 12, 125–146.

Petrescu A.M., Lohila A., Tuovinen J-P., Baldocchi D.D., Desai A.R., Roulet N.T., Vesala T., Dolman A.J., Oechel W.C.,
Marcolla B., Friborg T., Rinne J., Matthes J.H., Merbold L., Meijide A., Kiely G., Sottocornola M., Sachs T., Zona D.,
Varlagin A., Lai D.Y., Veenendaal E., Parmentier F.W., Skiba U., Lund M., Hensen A., Huissteden J.V., Flanagan L.B.,
Shurpali N.J., Grunwald T., Humphreys E.R., Jackowicz-Korczynski M., Aurela M., Laurila T., Gruning C., Corradi C.A.,
Schrier-Uijl A.P., Christensen T.R., Tamstorf M.P., Mastepanov M., Martikainen P.J., Verma S.B., Bernhofer C., Cescatti A.
(2015) The uncertain climate footprint of wetlands under human pressure. Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS),
112, 4594-4599. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1416267112

Raivonen M., Mäkiranta P., Lohila A., Juutinen S., Vesala T. and Tuittila E.-S. (2015) A simple CO2 exchange
model simulates the seasonal leaf area development of peatland sedges. Ecological modelling, 312, 32–43.

 

Pallaslompolonniemi

The Lake Pallasjärvi is located north of Arctic Circle and is a northern-boreal headwater lake with a size of 17.3 km2.
It is a clear-water, low-productive, oligotrophic lake and its almost-pristine catchment area consists mainly of
coniferous forests, open and treed mires and treeless tundra fells. The mean and maximum depth of the lake is 9 and
36 m, respectively.

Pallasjärvi

Photo: Annalea Lohila
 
Basic information
 Station name  Pallaslompolonniemi
 Coordinates  N68° 0.280', E24°12.254'
 Altitude (masl)  267
 Ecosystem type  Lake
 Networks  

 

Observations
 Parameter  Instrument  Measurement height (m) Period Coordinates
(if specific)
 CO2-flux (EC)  LI7000 + USA-1  2.5  07/2013 →  x
Supporting observations Air temperature + humidity, water temperature, water level, PPFD, net radiation

 

Climatology and vegetation 
 Climate data point  LPNN 8201 (1981-2010)
 Average temperature (°C) -1.4
 Annual precipitation (mm)  484
 Average snow depth at mid-March (cm)  72
 Median snow cover start date  Oct 24
 Median snow cover end date  May 14
 Environment  
 Vegetation type  Lake
 Mean vegetation height (m)  x
 Max projected LAI  x
 Soil type  x
 Stand volume (m3 ha-1)  x
 Tree density (ha-1)  x
 Tree age (years)  x

 

References

Aurela M., Lohila A., Tuovinen J-P., Hatakka J., Penttilä T., Laurila T. (2015) Carbon dioxide and energy flux measurements in four northern-boreal ecosystems at Pallas. Boreal Environment Research, 20, 455-473.

Lohila A., Tuovinen J-P., Hatakka J., Aurela M., Vuorenmaa J., Haakana M., Laurila T. (2015) Carbon dioxide and energy fluxes over a northern boreal lake. Boreal Environment Research, 20, 474-488.

Lohila A., Penttilä T., Jortikka S., Aalto T., Anttila P., Asmi E., Aurela M., Hatakka J., Hellen H., Henttonen H., Hänninen P., Kilkki J., Kyllönen K., Laurila T., Lepistö A., Lihavainen H., Makkonen U., Paatero J., Rask M., Sutinen R., Tuovinen J-P., Vuorenmaa J., Viisanen Y. (2015) Preface to the special issue on integrated research of atmosphere, ecosystems and environment at Pallas. Boreal Environment Research, 20, 431-454.

Kuha J., Arvola L., Hanson P.C., Huotari J., Huttula T., Juntunen J., Järvinen M., Kallio K., Ketola M., Kuoppamäki K., Lepistö A., Lohila A., Paavola R., Vuorenmaa J., Winslow L. and Karjalainen J. (2016) Response of boreal lakes to episodic weather-induced events. Inland waters, 6, 523–534, doi: 10.5268/IW-6.4.886

 

Sammaltunturi

Sammaltunturi station is on top of a sub-arctic hill, ca. 100 m above the treeline. The vegetation
on hill top is sparse, consisting mainly of low vascular plants, moss and lichen. Sammaltunturi is
one of the main observatories of Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) of World Meteorological Organization.
  

Sammaltunturi ..
....


Photo: Niku Kivekäs
 

Basic information

 
 Station name  Sammaltunturi
 Coordinates  N67°58.400' E24°06.939'
 Altitude (masl)  565
 Ecosystem type  Fell top/ tundra
 Networks  Main WMO-GAW site;
 Main ICOS atmospheric station

 

Observations
 Parameter  Instrument

Measurement

height (m)

 Period Coordinates
(if specific)

CO2 concentration

LI-6262, LI-7000

 7

07/1998 - 10/2012

 x

CH4 concentration

GC/FID

Picarro G1301, G2401

7

7

02/2004 -
01/2009

01/2009 -->

 x
N2O concentration

GC/ECD

LGR N2O/CO-23-EP

7

7

02/2004 - 12/2015

07/2013-->

 x
SF6 concentration GC/ECD  7 02/2004 - 12/2015  x
H2 concentration GC/RGD  7  09/2006 - 12/2014  x
CO concentration

GC/FID

GC/RGD

Picarro G2401

LGR N2O/CO-23-EP

7

7

7

2.5

02/2004 - 01/2009

09/2006 - 12/2014

12/2011 -->

07/2013

 x
 CO2-flux (EC)  LI-7000 +USA-1  2.5  06/2011 →  x
Supporting observations Air temperature, air humidity, PPFD, Global radiation, soil temperature profile, soil humidity, soil heat flux, trace gases, radon, aerosol properties

 

Climatology and vegetation 
 Climate data point  LPNN 8201 (1981-2010)
 Average temperature (°C)   -1.4
 Annual precipitation (mm)   484
 Average snow depth at mid-March (cm)  72
 Median snow cover start date  Oct 24
 Median snow cover end date  May 14
 Environment  
 Vegetation type  Shrubs
 Mean vegetation height   20 cm
 Max projected LAI  -
 Soil type  Bare bedrock / rock field, partly covered by thin humus layer
 Stand volume (m3 ha-1)  x
 Tree density (ha-1)  x
 Tree age (years)  x

 

References

Aalto T., Hatakka J., Karstens U., Aurela M., Thum T., and Lohila A. (2006) Modeling atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles and fluxes above sloping terrain at a boreal site. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6, 303–314.

Aalto T., Hatakka J., Kouznetsov R., Stanislawska K. (2015) Background and anthropogenic influences on atmospheric CO2 concentrations measured at Pallas: Comparison of two models for tracing air mass history. Boreal Environment Research, 20, 213-226.

Aurela M., Lohila A., Tuovinen J-P., Hatakka J., Penttilä T., Laurila T. (2015) Carbon dioxide and energy flux measurements in four northern-boreal ecosystems at Pallas. Boreal Environment Research, 20, 455-473.

Hatakka J., Aalto T., Aaltonen V., Aurela M., Hakola H., Komppula M., Laurila T., Lihavainen H., Paatero J., Salminen K. and Viisanen Y. (2003) Overview of the atmospheric research activities and results at Pallas GAW station. Boreal Environment Research, 8(4), 365-383.

Kilkki J., Aalto T., Hatakka J., Portin H., Laurila T. (2015) Atmospheric CO2 observations at Finnish urban and rural sites. Boreal Environment Research, 20, 227-242.

Lohila A., Penttilä T., Jortikka S., Aalto T., Anttila P., Asmi E., Aurela M., Hatakka J., Hellen H., Henttonen H., Hänninen P., Kilkki J., Kyllönen K., Laurila T., Lepistö A., Lihavainen H., Makkonen U., Paatero J., Rask M., Sutinen R., Tuovinen J-P., Vuorenmaa J., Viisanen Y. (2015) Preface to the special issue on integrated research of atmosphere, ecosystems and environment at Pallas. Boreal Environment Research, 20, 431-454.

 

Sodankylä (GAW)

Measurements at Sodankylä are part of Pallas-Sodankylä GAW station of Finnish Meteorological Institute and Sodankylä Arctic Research Centre and include concentration and flux measurement at three different locations: Sodankylä Forest, Halssiaapa and Sodankylä observatory.

 

Sodankylä forest

The full ecosystem site Sodankylä is located in central Lapland close to the Arctic Research
Centre of FMI.

 
 
Photos: Tuomas Laurila

 

Basic information
 Station name  Sodankylä forest        
 Coordinates  N67°21.708' , E26°38.29'
 Altitude (masl)  179
 Ecosystem type  Scots pine forest; Uliginosum-Vaccinium-Empetrum (UVET) type
 Networks

 ICOS Class I ecosystem site

 CryoNet station of GCW

 Station web-page (Sodankylä Arctic Research Centre)

 

Observations
Parameter Instrument Measurement height (m) Measurement period

Coordinates
(if specific)

CO2-concentration LI6262 2, 10, 23, 48 06/2012 →  x
CO2, CH4 and CO-concentrations G2401 2, 23, 48 06/2012→  x
CO2-flux (EC) LI7000 + USA-1 22.5 06/1999 →  x
CO2-flux (EC) LI7200 + USA-1 22.5 09/2012 → N67°21.71',  E26°38.59'
CO2-flux (EC, below-canopy) LI7500 + USA-1 2 05/2006 →  x
CO2-flux (automatic chamber) LI6262 forest floor 10/2000 → (growing season)  x
CO2-flux (manual chamber) EGM-2 (PP System) forest floor 06/2003 → (growing season)  x
CO2-flux (automatic chamber) LI840 (Li-Cor) forest floor 06/2010 →
(growing season)
 x
Supporting observations Air temperature + humidity, soil temperature, soil heat flux, soil moisture, PPFD, global radiation, albedo, net radiation, boundary layer Doppler-lidar.

  

Climatology and vegetation
 Climate data point  LPNN 7501 (1981-2010)
 Average temperature (°C)   -0.4
 Annual precipitation (mm)   527
 Average snow depth at mid-March (cm)  75
 Median snow cover start date  Sep 26
 Median snow cover end date  May 14
 Environment  
 Vegetation type  Pinus sylvestris; forest floor: e.g. lichens, mosses and small shrubs
 Mean vegetation height (m)  12
 Max projected LAI  -1.2
 Soil type Sandy Podzol
 Stand volume m3 ha-1  -
 Tree density (ha-1)  2100
 Tree age (years)  60-160

 

References

Aurela M. (2005) Carbon dioxide exchange in subarctic ecosystems measured by a micrometeorological technique. PhD thesis. Contributions 51, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland, 132 pp.

Thum T., Aalto T., Laurila T., Aurela M., Lindroth A. & Vesala T. (2008) Assessing seasonality of boreal coniferous forest CO2 exchange by estimating biochemical model parameters from micrometeorological flux observations. Biogeosciences, 5,1625–1639.

Kilkki J., Aalto T., Hatakka J., Portin H., Laurila T. (2015) Atmospheric CO2 observations at Finnish urban and rural sites. Boreal Environment Research, 20, 227-242.

Köster, E., Köster, K., Aurela, M., Laurila, T., Berninger, F., Lohila, A. and Pumpanen, J. (2013) Impact of reindeer herding on vegetation biomass and soil carbon content: a case study from Sodankylä, Finland. Boreal Environment Research, 18 (Suppl. A), 35-42.
 

Halssiaapa

Halssiaapa is an open fen in the vicinity of the Sodankylä forest flux site. It is dominated
by large, treeless flarks with abundant sedge vegetation, complemented by fairly low and
narrow ridges with birch trees (of 5-7 m in height).

Photo: Tuomas Laurila
 
Basic information
 Station name  Halssiaapa
 Coordinates  N67°22.117' E26°39.244'
 Altitude (masl)  180
 Ecosystem type  Fen
 Networks  CryoNet station of GCW
 Station web-page (Sodankylä Arctic Research Centre)

 

Observations
 Parameter  Instrument  Measurement height (m) Period

Coordinates
(if specific)

 CO2-flux (EC)  LI-7200 + USA-1  6.5  06/2012 →  x
 CH4-flux (EC)  LGR  6.5  06/2012 →  x
Supporting observations Air temperature + humidity, soil temperature, soil heat flux, soil moisture, water level height, PPFD, global radiation, albedo, net radiation

 

Climatology and vegetation
 Climate data point  LPNN 7501 (1981-2010)
 Average temperature (°C)   -0.4
 Annual precipitation (mm)  527
 Snow depth at mid-March (cm)  75
 Median snow cover start date  Sep 26
 Median snow cover end date  May 14
 Environment  
 Vegetation type  Sedges, sphagnum mosses, shrubs
 Mean vegetation height (m)  TBD in 2013
 Max projected LAI  TBD in 2013
 Soil type  Peat
 Stand volume (m3 ha-1)  TBD in 2013
 Tree density (ha-1)  TBD in 2013
 Tree age (years)  TBD in 2013

 

References

O'Shea S.J., Allen G., Gallagher M.W., Bower K., Illingworth S.M., Muller J.B.A., Jones B.T., Percival C.J., Bauguitte S.J-B., Cain M., Warwick N., Quiquet A., Skiba U., Drewer J., Dinsmore K., Nisbet E.G., Lowry D., Fisher R.E., France J.L., Aurela M., Lohila A., Hayman G., George C., Clark D.B., Manning A.J., Friend A.D., and Pyle J. (2014) Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes and their regional scalability for the European Arctic wetlands during the MAMM project in summer 2012. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 13159-13174.

Dinsmore K.J., Drewer J., Levy P.E., George C., Lohila A., Aurela M. and Skiba U.M. (2016) Growing season CH4 and N2O fluxes from a sub-arctic landscape in northern Finland. Biogeosciences, accepted, doi:10.5194/bg-2016-238

 

Sodankylä observatory

Sodankylä FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) station has been operational from the beginning of 2009. The station is part of TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) network.

Basic information
 Station name  Sodankylä observatory
 Coordinates  N67° 22.02', E26°37.837'
 Altitude (masl)  180
 Ecosystem type  Scots pine forest;
 Networks  
 Station web-page (Sodankylä Arctic Research Centre)

 

Observations
 Parameter  Instrument  Measurement height (m) Period Coordinates
(if specific)
 Atmospheric column
 CO2, CH4 and N2O
 TCCON
 FTIR
 x  02/2009
 →
 x
 Supporting
 observations
 Meteorology, satellite receiving station, snow properties
 etc

  

Climatology and vegetation
 Climate data point  LPNN 7501 (1981-2010)
 Average temperature (°C)   -0.4
 Annual precipitation (mm)  527
 Snow depth at mid-March (cm)  75
 Median snow cover start date  Sep 26
 Median snow cover end date  May 14
 Environment  
 Vegetation type  -
 Mean vegetation height (m)  -
 Max projected LAI  -
 Soil type  -
 Stand volume (m3 ha-1)  -
 Tree density (ha-1)  -
 Tree age (years)  -

 

 References

Kivi R. and Heikkinen P. (2016) Fourier transform spectrometer measurements of column CO2 at Sodankylä, Finland. Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 271-279, doi:10.5194/gi-5-271-2016

 

Puijo

The Puijo station is a joint station of Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and University of Kuopio
(Department of Physics). The Puijo station is part of Finnish Smear station network.

Puijo tower
 Photo: Harri Portin
 
Basic information
 Station name

 Puijo

 Coordinates  N62°54.564', E27°39.309'
 Altitude (masl)  230
 Ecosystem type  Semi-urban
 Networks  Main ICOS atmospheric station
 Station web-page (Puijo Observatory)

 

Observations
 Parameter  Instrument  Measurement height (m) Period Coordinates
(if specific)
 CO2, CH4 and
 H2O-
 concentrations
Picarro G2301  85  06/2011→  x
Supporting observations All basic weather parameters, O3, NOx and SO2- concentrations, aerosol particle number size distribution and optical properties, PM, cloud droplet number size distribution, boundary layer Doppler-lidar.

  

Climatology and vegetation
 Climate data point  LPNN 3601 (1981-2010)
 Average temperature (°C)  3.1
 Annual precipitation (mm)  638
 Snow depth at mid-March (cm)  50
 Median snow cover start date  Nov 26
 Median snow cover end date  Apr 23
 Environment  
 Vegetation type  Picea abies; forest floor: e.g. mosses
and small shrubs
 Mean vegetation height (m)  -
 Max projected LAI  -
 Soil type  Moraine
 Stand volume (m3 ha-1)  -
 Tree density (ha-1)  -
 Tree age (years)   200 (max. age)

  

References

Kilkki J., Aalto T., Hatakka J., Portin H., Laurila T. (2015) Atmospheric CO2 observations at Finnish urban and rural sites. Boreal Environment Research, 20, 227-242.

Leskinen A., Portin H., Komppula M., Miettinen P., Arola A., Lihavainen H., Hatakka J., Laaksonen A. & Lehtinen K.E.J. (2009) Overview of the research activities and results at Puijo semi-urban measurement station. Boreal Environment Research, 14, 576–590.

 

Lettosuo

The supporting ecosystem site Lettosuo in Tammela was originally herb-rich tall sedge
birch-pine fen which was drained for forestry in the early 1970. Tree stand is dominated
by Scots pine and downy birch in the overstorey with a dense understorey of Norway spruce.

In spring 2016, large part of the forest was harvested by removing the pine trees
75% of the tree biomass). A new eddy covariance tower was established at a clear cut area,
ca. 1 km from the main tower. A control site with untouched trees was left to monitor
the forest floor GHG exchange with the automatic flux chambers.

 

See details of the harvest experiment.

Lettosuo
Photo: Annalea Lohila
 
Basic information
 Station name  Lettosuo
 Coordinates  N60°38.510' E23°57.583'
 Altitude (masl)  111
 Ecosystem type  Scots pine forest with some spruce and birch; Vaccinium-myrtillus (MT) type
 Networks  ICOS associate ecosystem site

  

Observations
 Parameter  Instrument  Measurement height (m) Period Coordinates
(if specific)
 CO2-flux (EC)  LI7000 + USA-1  25.5  09/2009→  x
CO2-flux (automatic chamber)  LI840 (Li-Cor)  Forest floor  09/2010→  x
 CH4-flux (automatic chamber)  Picarro G1301  Forest floor

 02/2011 - 12/2012

2015→

 x
 CO2-flux (manual chamber) EGM-4 (PP System) Forest floor

 06/2009 - 11/2011

2015→

 x
CH4 and N2O -fluxes (manual chamber)  GC  Forest floor

 06/2009 - 11/2011

2015→

 x

Supporting observations

Air temperature + humidity, soil temperature, soil heat flux, soil moisture, PPFD, global radiation, albedo, net radiation, DIC and DOC in the discharge water

   

Climatology and vegetation
 Climate data point  LPNN 1201 (1981-2010)
 Average temperature (°C)  4.6
 Annual precipitation (mm)  627
 Snow depth at mid-March (cm)  28
 Median snow cover start date  Dec 13
 Median snow cover end date  Apr 8
 Environment  
 Vegetation type

 Pinus sylvestris, some undergrown Picea abies and Betula; forest floor: e.g. mosses and small shrubs

After harvest: Picea abies and Betula

 Mean vegetation height (m)

 20 (before harvest)

 

 Max projected LAI  -
 Soil type  Peat; originally herb-rich tall sedge birch-pine fen
 Stand volume (m3ha-1)  230 (before harvest)
 Tree density (ha-1)  2200 (before harvest)
 Tree age (years)  Varying, site has been drained in 1971

  

References

Koskinen M., Minkkinen K., Ojanen P., Kämäräinen M., Laurila T. and Lohila A. (2014) Measurements of the CO2 exchange with an automated chamber system throughout the year: challenges in measuring the nighttime respiration in porous peat soil. Biogeosciences, 11, 347-363.

Linkosalmi M., Pumpanen J., Biasi C., Heinonsalo J., Laiho R., Lindén A., Palonen V., Laurila T. and Lohila A. (2015) Studying the impact of living roots on the decomposition of soil organic matter in two different forestry-drained peatlands. Plant and Soil, doi:10.1007/s11104-015-2584-4.

 

Tervalamminsuo

The site is a pristine, ombrotrophic bog typical of the flat bog complexes of the South-Western
part of Finland. The sparsely treed part to the west of the EC-mast represents the Sphagnum
fuscum bog type while the area to the east and south is classified as a ridge-hollow pine bog.
The bog is deep-peated and the surface layers are very poorly humified Sphagnum-peat. The
bog belongs to the Liesjärvi National Park.

 
Basic information
 Station name  Tervalamminsuo
 Coordinates  N60°38.74' , E23°58.40'
 Altitude (masl)  117
 Ecosystem type  Bog
 Station characterization  

 

Observations
 Parameter  Instrument  Measurement height (m) Period Coordinates
(if specific)
 CO2-flux (EC)  LI7200 + USA-1  7  06/2012→  x
CH4-flux (manual chamber)  GC  Ground  07/2014 →  x
Supporting observations Air temperature + humidity, soil temperature, soil heat flux, soil moisture, water level height, PPFD, global radiation, albedo, net radiation, long-wave radiation.

 

Climatology and vegetation
 Climate data point  LPNN 1201 (1981-2010)
 Average temperature (°C)  4.6
 Annual precipitation (mm)  627
 Snow depth at mid-March (cm)  28
 Median snow cover start date  Dec 13
 Median snow cover end date  Apr 8
 Environment  
 Vegetation type   Pristine, ombrotrophic Sphagnum bog with sparse pine stand. 
 Mean vegetation height (m)  
 Max projected LAI  -
 Soil type  Peat
 Stand volume (m3ha-1)  
 Tree density (ha-1)  
 Tree age (years)  

 

References

 x

 

Kumpula

Kumpula observations are jointly operated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and University of Helsinki. The observations at Kumpula are part of Finnish Smear network.

Kumpula

Photo: Lauri Laakso
 
Basic information
 Station name  Kumpula
 Coordinates  N60°12.233, E24°57.649'
 Altitude (masl)  26
Ecosystem type  Urban park area
Station characterization

Urban station on Kumpula campus area

Station web-page (Kumpula Smear III)

 

Observations
 Parameter  Instrument Measurement height (m) Period Coordinates
(if specific)
 CO2 and CH4 
 -concentrations
 Picarro G1301  30  02/2010
 →
N60°12.233, E24°57.649'
 CO2-flux LI7000, LI7500 and Metek USA-1  29 m  01/2006
 →
N60°12.17, E24°57.671'
Supporting observations Full range of meteorology, aerosol properties, aerosol chemistry and trace gases, weather radar, boundary layer Doppler-lidar etc.

  

Climatology and vegetation
 Climate data point  LPNN 304 (1981-2010)
 Average temperature (°C)  5.9
 Annual precipitation (mm)  655
 Snow depth at mid-March (cm)  23
 Median snow cover start date  Dec 31
 Median snow cover end date  Apr 6
 Environment  
 Vegetation type Urban park area
 Mean vegetation height (m)  -
 Max projected LAI  -
 Soil type  -
 Stand volume (m3 ha-1)  -
 Tree density (ha-1)  -
 Tree age (years)  -

   

References

Järvi, L. et al. The urban measurement station SMEAR III: Continuous monitoring of air pollution and surface-atmosphere interactions in Helsinki, Finland, Boreal Environ. Res., 14 (Suppl. A), 86–109, (2009).

Kilkki J., Aalto T., Hatakka J., Portin H., Laurila T. 2015. Atmospheric CO2 observations at Finnish urban and rural sites. Boreal Env. Res. 20, 227-242.

Vesala T. et al., Surface-atmosphere interactions over Complex urban terrain in Helsinki, Finland. Tellus 60B, 188, (2008).

 

Ämmässuo

Ämmässuo is a regional landfill located in the vicinity of Helsinki metropolitan area. The landfill is operated by the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council and receives all the municipal waste from five municipalities with a total population of around one million. In recent years almost 700 000 tons of waste per year have been delivered to the waste treatment centre. The landfill gases are partially recovered from the landfill and burned with an open flame.

Ämmässuo

Photo: Tuomas Laurila
 
Basic information
 Station name  Ämmässuo
 Coordinates  N60°14.190,
 E24°32.063
 Altitude (masl)  73
 Ecosystem type  Landfill
 Station characterization  Landfill

 

Observations
 Parameter  Instrument  Measurement height (m) Period Coordinates
(if specific)
CO2-flux (EC)  LI7000 + USA-1  5  06/2003
 →
 x
CH4-flux (EC)  LGR  5  06/2003
 →
 x
Supporting observations     Temperature, RH, Net radiation, soil temperature

 

Climatology and vegetation
 Climate data point  LPNN  301 (1981-2010)
 Average temperature (°C)   5.3
 Annual precipitation (mm)   682
 Snow depth at mid-March (cm)   21
 Median snow cover start date  Dec 28
 Median snow cover end date  Apr 3
 Environment  Landfill
 Vegetation type  
 Mean vegetation height (m)  x
 Max projected LAI  x
 Soil type  x
 Stand volume (m3 ha-1)  x
 Tree density (ha-1)  x
 Tree age (years)  x

 

References


Laurila T., Tuovinen J.-P., Lohila A., Hatakka J., Aurela M., Thum T., Pihlatie M., Rinne J., and Vesala T. 2005. Measuring methane emissions from a landfill using a cost-effective micrometeorological method. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L19808, doi:10.1029/2005GL023462

Rinne J., Pihlatie M., Lohila A., Thum T., Aurela M., Tuovinen J.P., Laurila T., and Vesala T. 2005. Nitrous oxide emissions from a municipal landfill. Environmental Science and Technology 39, 7790–7793.

Lohila A., Laurila T., Tuovinen J.-P., Aurela M., Hatakka J., Thum T., Pihlatie M., Rinne J., and Vesala T. 2007. Micrometeorological Measurements of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes at a Municipal Landfill. Environmental Science and Technology 41, 2717–2722. doi: 10.1021/es061631h

 

Utö

Utö atmospheric and marine research station has a wide range of greenhouse gas,
aerosol and marine observations on Utö Island at the outer edge of the Archipelago
Sea.

Utö
 
Basic information
 Station name  Utö
 Coordinates  N59° 47.034' , E21° 22.030'
 Altitude (masl)  8
 Ecosystem type  Outer archipelago
 Station characterization  Main ICOS atmospheric station
 Station web-page (Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station)

 

Observations
 Parameter  Instrument Measurement height (m) Period Coordinates
(if specific)
 CO2, CH4 and
 CO-concentrations
Picarro G2401  56  04/2012→

N59° 47.034', 
E21° 22.03'

 CO2-flux Licor 7200 + Metek USA-1  8 m (13 m.a.s.l)  09/2012→ N59° 46.926', 
E21° 21.406'
 pCO2 Sunburst SAMI2  -5 m  10/2012→

N59° 46.958', 
E21° 21.036'

 Supporting observations Meteorology, solar radiation, waves, sea ice cover, aerosol properties, boundary layer Doppler-lidar etc (link: a complete list of observations at Utö)

  

Climatology and vegetation
 Climate data point  LPNN 2 (1981-2010)
 Average temperature (°C)  6.5
 Annual precipitation (mm)  549
 Snow depth at mid-March (cm)  8
 Median snow cover start date  Jan 23
 Median snow cover end date  Mar 15
 Environment  
 Vegetation type  Open rocky island with some shrubs and grass.
 Mean vegetation height (m)  < 0.5
 Max projected LAI  x
 Soil type  Rock and gravel
 Stand volume (m3 ha-1)  x
 Tree density (ha-1)  x
 Tree age (years)  x

 

Some information on characteristics of Baltic Sea can be found from the web-page of
ICOS-Finland science workshop held at Utö in April 2012.

References

Hyvärinen A., Komppula M., Engler C., Kivekäs N., Kerminen V.-M., Dal Maso M., Viisanen Y. and Lihavainen H., Atmospheric new particle formation at Utö, Baltic Sea 2003–2005. Tellus 60B, 345-352, 2008.

Kilkki J., Aalto T., Hatakka J., Portin H., Laurila T. 2015. Atmospheric CO2 observations at Finnish urban and rural sites. Boreal Env. Res. 20, 227-242.
 

 

Tiksi

The Tiksi Hydrometeorological Observatory is located in the Russian far East at 71.6 N, 128.9.
The facility has been developed through a partnership between the National Science Foundation
(NSF), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Russian Federal
Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet), and the Finnish
Meteorological Institute.

Tiksi

Photo: Tuomas Laurila
 
Basic information
 Station name  Tiksi Observatory
 Coordinates  N71°35.791',
 E128°53.327'
 Altitude (masl)  19
 Ecosystem type  Tundra (permafrost)
 Station characterization  
 Station web-page (Hydrometeorological Observatory of Tiksi)

  

Observations
 Parameter  Instrument  Measurement height (m) Period Coordinates
(if specific)
CO2 and CH4 - concentrations
 LGR  10  07/2010
 →
N71°35.791' E128°53.327'
Altitude: 19  masl

CO2-flux

 LI7000  3  07/2010
  →
N71°35.655' E128°53.270'
Altitude: 7  masl
CH4-flux  LGR  3  06/2011
 →
N71°35.655' E128°53.270'
Altitude: 7  masl
Supporting observations Meteorology, aerosol size distributions and properties, soil temperature and moisture

  

Climatology and vegetation
 Average temperature (°C)  -12.7
 Annual precipitation (mm)  323
 Snow depth at mid-March (cm)  -
 Median snow cover start date  -
 Median snow cover end date  -
 Environment  Permafrost
 Vegetation type  -
 Mean vegetation height (m)  < 0.2
 Max projected LAI  -
 Soil type  Peat/mineral soil
 Stand volume (m3 ha-1)  x
 Tree density (ha-1)  x
 Tree age (years)  x

 

References

 x

 

Cape Baranova

Research station "Ice base Cape Baranova" is in the very northern part of the Bolshevik island, which is part of the Northern Land. To the north is the Arctic Ocean and to the east Laptev Sea and to the west Shokalski strait leading to the Kara Sea. The station is operated by Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St Petersburg.

The site is characterized by long polar night from 22 October to 22 February and polar day from April 22 to August 22. The climate is representative of the Arctic Ocean. The air temperature in the summer (June-August) is from 0° to 4°C. In winter (October-April) the temperature range is from -5° to -45° C. Station area is characterized by sustained winds of predominantly southerly direction at an average speed of 10-15 m/s. During the transition period, the wind speed can reach 50 m/s. Soil in the vicinity of the station is mostly composed from rocky shale. The depth of summer thawing does not exceed 30 - 40 cm.

Photo: Tuomas Laurila
Basic information
 Station name  Ice base Cape Baranova
 Coordinates  N79°16.824',
 E101°37.053
 Altitude (masl)  20
 Ecosystem type  Arctic semidesert
 Station characterization  

 

Observations
 Parameter  Instrument  Measurement height (m) Period Coordinates
(if specific)
 CO2, CH4 and H2O- concentrations Picarro G2401   10  10/2015 →  
Supporting observations Meteorology, aerosol size distributions and optical properties, CO and SO2 concentration

 

 

Welgegund

Welgegund measurement station is a comprehesive atmospheric measurement station approximately 100 km west of Johannesburg, South Africa. The station is owned and operated by the North-West University, Republic of South Africa, with support from University of Helsinki and Finnish Meteorological Institute.

 Welgegund

 
Basic information
 Station name  Welgegund
 Coordinates  S26°34'10", E26°56'21"
 Altitude (masl)  1480
 Ecosystem type  Grazed grassland-savannah
 Station characterization  Regional background site
Station web-page (Welgegund measurement station)

  

Observations
 Parameter  Instrument  Measurement height (m) Period Coordinates
(if specific)
 CO2-flux Licor 7000  + USA-1   8  08/2010 →  
Supporting observations Meteorology, trace gases, aerosol properties, solar radiation, albedo, soil moisture and temperatures (link: full list of observations).

 

Climatology and vegetation
 Average Temperature  -
 Annual precipitation  -
 Environment  Grazed grassland savannah
 Vegetation type  Grazed grassland savannah
 Mean vegetation height (m)  5
 Max projected LAI  -
 Soil type  Sandy tilt
 Stand volume (m3 ha-1)  -
 Tree density (ha-1)  -
 Tree age (years)  -

 

References

 x

 

Marambio

Marambio

Photo: Eija Asmi (see also a 360° degree video clip of the surroundings, 02/2013)

Base Antártica Marambio is the main Argentine base in Antarctica, and it is located in Seymour-Marambio Island. Finnish meteorological institute supports the measurements at the base by diverse meteorological  and atmospheric observations.

Basic information
 Station name  Marambio
 Coordinates  S64°15', W56°38'
 Altitude (masl)  198
 Ecosystem type  Permafrost
 Station characterization  -
 Station information in Wikipedia

  

Observations
 Parameter  Instrument  Measurement
 height (m)
Period Coordinates
(if specific)
 CO2, CH4 and H2O -concentrations  Picarro
 G2301
 8 m  2013/02 →  x
Supporting observations Basic meteorology, aerosol size distributions, optical properties and chemistry (filter samples), ozone concentration, UV radiation and UV albedo, UV and ozone in total column, ozone soundings.

 

Climatology and vegetation
 Average Temperature (°C)  -8.9°C
 Annual precipitation (mm)  707 mm
 Average snow depth  -
 Environment  Marine Antarctic
 Vegetation type  x
 Mean vegetation height (m)  x
 Max projected LAI  x
 Soil type  -
 Stand volume (m3 ha-1)  x
 Tree density (ha-1)  x
 Tree age (years)  x

 

References

  x

 

Previous measurement sites

Kalevansuo

The site was originally classified as a dwarf-shrub pine bog, and was drained in 1969 to
enhance tree growth. The tree stand consists of a dominant Scots pine stand and an
understorey of pubescent birch trees.

Kalevansuo

Photo: Tuomas Laurila
 

Basic information

 

 Station name

 Kalevansuo

 Coordinates

 N60°38.81', E24°21.37'

 Altitude (masl)

 123

 Ecosystem type

 Scots pine forest with some birch and small spruce in the gaps.

 Networks

 

 

Observations
 Parameter  Instrument  Measurement height (m) Period Coordinates
(if specific)
 CO2-flux  LI7000 + USA-1  21.5  09/2004-04/2009  x
 CO2-flux (automatic chamber)  LI840 (Licor)  Forest floor  09/2010 -  x
 CO2-flux (manual chamber)   EGM-4 (PP-system)  Forest floor  08/2004 - 12/2005  x
 CH4 and N2O-fluxes (manual chamber)  GC  Forest floor  08/2004 - 12/2005  x
 Supporting observations Air temperature + humidity, soil temperature, soil heat flux, soil moisture, PPFD, global radiation, albedo, net radiation

 

Climatology and vegetation
 Climate data point  LPNN 1302 (1981-2010)
 Average temperature (°C)  4.6
 Annual precipitation (mm)  660
 Snow depth at mid-March (cm)  31
 Median snow cover start date  Dec 10
 Median snow cover end date  Apr 11
 Environment  
 Vegetation type Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies L., Betula pubescens Roth.
Forest floor: forest and mire dwarf shrubs mixed with some cottongrass and cloudberry.
 Mean vegetation height (m)  18
 Max projected LAI  1.5
 Soil type  Peat; originally herb-rich tall sedge birch-pine fen
 Stand volume (m3 ha-1)  130
 Tree density (ha-1)  1700
 Tree age (years)  Varying, site has been drained in 1969

 

References

Badorek T., Tuittila E.-S., Ojanen P. and Minkkinen K. 2011. Forest floor photosynthesis and respiration in a drained peatland forest in southern Finland. Plant Ecology & Diversity, 4, 2-3, 227-241.

Koskinen M., Minkkinen K., Ojanen P., Kämäräinen M., Laurila T. and Lohila A. 2014. Measurements of the CO2 exchange with an automated chamber system throughout the year: challenges in measuring the nighttime respiration in porous peat soil. Biogeosciences, 11, 347-363.

Linkosalmi M., Pumpanen J., Biasi C., Heinonsalo J., Laiho R., Lindén A., Palonen V., Laurila T. and Lohila A. 2015. Studying the impact of living roots on the decomposition of soil organic matter in two different forestry-drained peatlands. Plant and Soil, doi:10.1007/s11104-015-2584-4.

Lohila A., Minkkinen K., Aurela M., Tuovinen J.-P., Penttilä T., Ojanen P. and Laurila T. 2011. Greenhouse gas flux measurements in a forestry-drained peatland indicate a large carbon sink. Biogeosciences 8, 3203–3218, doi:10.5194/bg-8-3203-2011.

Ojanen P., Minkkinen K., Lohila A., Badorek T. and Penttilä T. 2012. Chamber measured soil respiration: A useful tool for estimating the carbon balance of peatland forest soils? Forest Ecology and Management 277, 132–140, doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2012.04.027.

Petrescu A.M., Lohila A., Tuovinen J-P., Baldocchi D.D., Desai A.R., Roulet N.T., Vesala T., Dolman A.J., Oechel W.C., Marcolla B., Friborg T., Rinne J., Matthes J.H., Merbold L., Meijide A., Kiely G., Sottocornola M., Sachs T., Zona D., Varlagin A., Lai D.Y., Veenendaal E., Parmentier F.W., Skiba U., Lund M., Hensen A., Huissteden J.V., Flanagan L.B., Shurpali N.J., Grunwald T., Humphreys E.R., Jackowicz-Korczynski M., Aurela M., Laurila T., Gruning C., Corradi C.A., Schrier-Uijl A.P., Christensen T.R., Tamstorf M.P., Mastepanov M., Martikainen P.J., Verma S.B., Bernhofer C., Cescatti A. 2015. The uncertain climate footprint of wetlands under human pressure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Vol. 112 p. 4594-4599. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1416267112.

Pihlatie M., Kiese R., Brüggemann N., Butterbach-Bahl K., Kieloaho A.-J., Laurila T., Lohila A., Mammarella I., Minkkinen K., Penttilä T., Schönborn J. and Vesala T. 2010. Greenhouse gas fluxes in a drained peatland forest. Biogeosciences 7, 1715–1727. doi:10.5194/bg-7-1715-2010.

 

Alkkia

The site was originally a Sphagnum fuscum bog which was drained by ditching and taken
for agriculture in the end for 1930's. At that time, a mineral soil admixture was introduced
into the soil to improve it for cultivation. The site was afforested with Scots pine in 1971.

Alkkia

Photo: Tuomas Laurila
 
Basic information
Station name  Alkkia
Coordinates                  N62°11.002' E22°47.054'
Altitude (masl)  158
Ecosystem type  Scots pine forest
Networks   -

  

Observations
Parameter Instrument  Measurement height (m) Period Coordinates
(if specific)
CO2-flux LI7000 + ATI SWS211  18  08/2002 -09/2004  x
CO2-flux Manual opaque chamber + EGM  Forest floor  04/2003-03/2005  x
CH4 and N2O- flux Manual opaque chamber + GC  Forest floor  04/2003-03/2005  x
Supporting observations Air temperature + humidity, soil temperature, soil heat flux, soil moisture, ground water level, PPFD, global radiation, net radiation

  

Climatology and vegetation
 Climate data point  LPNN 2101 (1981-2010)
 Average temperature (°C)  4.1
 Annual precipitation (mm)  681
 Snow depth at mid-March (cm)  44
 Median snow cover start date  Dec 11
 Median snow cover end date  Apr 19
 Environment  
 Vegetation type  Mainly Pinus sylvestris, some Betula bendula and B. pubescens; forest floor: e.g. Rubus idaeus, Epilobium angustifolium, Urtica dioica…
 Mean vegetation height (m)  12.1
 Max projected LAI  Forest canopy 1.6, forest floor 2.0
 Soil type  Peat, amended with a mineral soil admixture.
 Stand volume (m3 ha-1)  126
 Tree density (ha-1)  977
 Tree age (years)  30

 

References

Lohila A., Laurila T., Aro L., Aurela M., Tuovinen J.-P., Laine J., Kolari P. and Minkkinen K. 2007. Carbon dioxide exchange above a 30-year-old Scots pine plantation established on organic-soil cropland. Boreal Environment Research 12, 141–157.

Mäkiranta P., Hytönen J., Aro L., Maljanen M., Pihlatie M., Potila H., Shurpali N. J., Laine J., Lohila A., Martikainen P. J. and Minkkinen K. 2007. Soil greenhouse gas emissions from afforested organic soil croplands and cutaway peatlands. Boreal Environment Research 12, 159–175.

 

Jokioinen

An agricultural peat field in the south-western Finland, which has been drained for more
than 100 years ago. Due to the decomposition and subsidence of peat, the depth of the
peat layer is currently only about 50 cm. The subsurface drainage ditches keep the water
level at about one meter below the soil surface.

Jokioinen

Photo: Annalea Lohila
 
Basic information
 Station name  Jokioinen
 Coordinates                  N60°53.93' , E23°30.86'
 Altitude (masl)  104
 Ecosystem type  Agricultural field
 Networks  -

  

Observations
Parameter Instrument Measurement height (m) Period Coordinates
(if specific)
CO2-flux (EC) LI6262 + SWS211 3 02/2000- 08/2003x  x
CH4 and N2O-flux (manual chamber)  GC  Ground  09/1999-08/2002  x
CO2-flux (manual chamber)  LI-6262  Ground  2000-2002
(growing seasons)
 x
Supporting observations Air temperature + humidity, soil temperature, soil heat flux, soil moisture, PPFD, global radiation, albedo, net radiation

  

Climatology and vegetation
 Climate data point  LPNN 1201 (1981-2010)
 Average temperature  (°C)  4.6
 Annual precipitation  (mm)  627
 Snow depth at mid-March (1981-2010) (cm)  28
 Median snow cover start date  Dec 13
 Median snow cover end date  Apr 8
 Environment  
 Vegetation type  Mixed cereals May - Oct 2000, bare soil Oct 2000-May 2001, Spring barley May-September 2001, under-sown grass since that.
 Mean vegetation height (m)  1 (maximum height)
 Max projected LAI  5.9
 Soil type  Peat; originally herb-rich tall sedge birch-pine fen
 Stand volume
(m3 ha-1)
 x
 Tree density (ha-1)  x
 Tree age (years)  x

 

References

Lohila A., Aurela M., Regina K., and Laurila T. 2003. Soil and total ecosystem respiration in agricultural fields: effect of soil and crop type. Plant and Soil 251, 303–317.

Lohila A., Aurela M., Tuovinen J.-P., and Laurila T. 2004. Annual CO2 exchange of a peat field growing spring barley or perennial forage grass. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D18116, doi: 10.1029/2004JD004715.

Lohila A. Aurela M., Regina K., Tuovinen J.-P., and Laurila T. 2007. Wintertime CO2 exchange in a boreal agricultural peat soil. Tellus 59B, 860–873. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2007.00314.x

Petrescu A.M., Lohila A., Tuovinen J-P., Baldocchi D.D., Desai A.R., Roulet N.T., Vesala T., Dolman A.J., Oechel W.C., Marcolla B., Friborg T., Rinne J., Matthes J.H., Merbold L., Meijide A., Kiely G., Sottocornola M., Sachs T., Zona D., Varlagin A., Lai D.Y., Veenendaal E., Parmentier F.W., Skiba U., Lund M., Hensen A., Huissteden J.V., Flanagan L.B., Shurpali N.J., Grunwald T., Humphreys E.R., Jackowicz-Korczynski M., Aurela M., Laurila T., Gruning C., Corradi C.A., Schrier-Uijl A.P., Christensen T.R., Tamstorf M.P., Mastepanov M., Martikainen P.J., Verma S.B., Bernhofer C., Cescatti A. 2015. The uncertain climate footprint of wetlands under human pressure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Vol. 112 p. 4594-4599. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1416267112

Regina K., Pihlatie M., Esala M. and Alakukku L. 2007. Methane fluxes on boreal arable soils. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 199, 346-352

Regina K., Syväsalo E., Hannukkala A., and Esala M. 2004. Fluxes of N2O from farmed peat soils in Finland. European Journal of Soil Science 55, 591-599

 

5.5.2017